# Array

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An array is a structure concept for data types.
It groups elements of the same type.
An array provides random access to every of its elements, also known as components, by a linear index.

The word array is a reserved word. It always occurs in conjunction with the word of.

## Contents

## notion

An array is a limited and arranged aggregation of elements, all of which having the same data type called “base type”. It has at least one discrete, bounded dimension, continuously enumerating all its elements. Each element can be uniquely identified by one or more scalar values, called indices, along those dimensions.

A one-dimensional array resembles an **n-tuple**, as it is known from mathematics, but has the constraint of being homogenous (all elements have the same type).
The range of all possible values such an array can acquire is the homogenous n-ary Cartesian product of the base type.

A two-dimensional array resembles the mathematical concept named **matrix**, except for the homogeneity restriction.

## usage

### length

Originally, Pascal only knew arrays of fixed length (Standard Pascal). How many elements an array consists of had to be known at compile-time. Since this turned out to be a major constraint, and not to mention changes in computers' hardware since then justified a step forward, variable-length arrays were introduced.

Extended Pascal defined the notion of “schemata” for this. Delphi introduced “dynamic arrays”. As of 2018 FPC only supports the latter regarding variable-length arrays, while support for “schemata” is planned.

Depending on whether an array is intended of being capable of changing its size, its definition varies, but just marginally. For a one-dimensional static array the type definition looks like this:

array[indexType] of baseType

A dynamic array type definition is simply relieved of its dimension specification:

array of baseType

#### static arrays

In static arrays all dimensions' ranges are known in advance. All dimension specifications have to be ordinal types. The following code shows valid array definitions, all of them static.

program staticArrayDemo(input, output, stderr);

`type`

`// specifying ordinal types as index directly`

`/// allows selection of a character`

`/// based on a Boolean value`

characterChoice = array[boolean] of UCS4char;

`// enumerations`

`/// enumerates Cartesian axes`

spaceAxis = (xAxis, yAxis, zAxis);

`/// a point in three-dimensional Euclidean space`

locus = array[spaceAxis] of valReal;

`/// a point in a two-dimensional Euclidean plane`

point = array[xAxis..yAxis] of valReal;

`// integer subranges`

level = array[-24..24] of longint;

box = array[-1..1, -1..1, -1..1] of boolean;

transformationMatrix = array[0..1, 0..1] of valReal;

`begin`

end.

As all array's elements have to be addressable, there exists a maximum limit of elements an array can hold. The sizeOf every array type has to be less than ptrInt's maximum value.

#### dynamic arrays

A dynamic array is an approach of overcoming the limitation of knowing all dimensions sizes in advance. See its dedicated page for details.

### addressing elements

An array's element is addressed by naming the array variable's identifier followed a valid index enclosed by square brackets.

program arrayAddressDemo(input, output, stderr);

`var`

msg: array[0..2] of char;

`begin`

msg[0] := 'H';

msg[1] := 'i';

msg[2] := '!';

writeLn(msg);

end.

Multidimensional arrays' elements can be addressed in two ways: Either by comma-separating indices:

arrayVariable[firstDimensionIndex, secondDimensionIndex, thirdDimensionIndex]

Or by putting indices in dedicated square brackets:

arrayVariable[firstDimensionIndex][secondDimensionIndex][thirdDimensionIndex]

A third syntactically valid option would be mixing both styles, however, that is considered as bad style, maybe unless there is indication to group indices (e.g. x, y and z coordinates versus other indices) it is OK. Nonetheless, only the first mentioned notation is valid while defining array types.

Note, it is very important to specify indices in the defined order, within each dimensions' range. Consider the following program. It will compile, but fail during runtime due to {$rangeChecks on}:

program arrayAddressOrderDemo(input, output, stderr); {$rangeChecks on} var i: integer; f: array[0..1, 0..3] of boolean; begin for i := 0 to 7 do begin f[0, i] := true; end; end.

While the program would indeed iterate over every array's element, it doesn't do so in the intended way, but exploits the fact the array's internal memory struturce is just a continous block of memory. This is bad style. The programmer in a high-level language is not supposed to care about specific memory layouts. Cave: It is possible to tamper with other variables in this way. At any rate, a runtime error, namely “RTE 216 general protection fault”, will occur if an attempt is made in accessing memory which is not within the purview of the programmer.

When values contained in arrays are only read, thus the indexes do not matter, a for … in loop can be used.

## application

See for instance:

- array sort
- 15-puzzle's or Peg's game board states are stored as an array

In the default RTL's system unit the function system.slice returns the initial part of an array, similiar to Ruby's notation arrayVariable[0, n]. Furthermore there is system.arrayStringToPPchar. Most statistical routines of the RTL's math unit accept arrays as parameters, as well as some other routines.

## see also

- Type information
- tutorial: 1-dimensional arrays
- tutorial: multidimensional arrays
- example: multidimensional dynamic array
- Why Pascal is not my favorite programming language § “the size of an array is part of its type”
- defensive programming techniques
- vectorization
- matrix unit

simple data types |
boolean byte cardinal char currency extended int64 integer longint pointer real shortint smallint word |
---|---|

complex data types |