# Developing with Graphics/zh CN

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## 其他图形文章

### 2D 绘图

• ZenGL - 利用 OpenGL 跨平台的游戏开发库
• BGRABitmap - 绘制图形与位图透明效果，直接存取像素等
• LazRGBGraphics - 一个快速进行内存图像处理与像素操作
• fpvectorial - 矢量图像读写支持
• PascalMagick - 针对ImageMagick易于使用的API, 在多平台下用来创建、编辑及合成位图文件的自由软件包
• Sample Graphics - Lazarus和绘图工具创建的图库
• Fast direct pixel access - speed comparison of some methods for direct bitmap pixel access(位图像素访问速度对比的一些方法)
• AggPas - AggPas is an Object Pascal native port of the Anti-Grain Geometry library. It is fast and very powerful with anti-aliased drawing and subpixel accuracy. You can think of AggPas as of a rendering engine that produces pixel images in memory from some vectorial data.(AggPas是Anti-Grain Object Pascal的本地端口。它快速、功能强大反锯齿绘图和亚像素精度。你可以认为AggPas渲染引擎是矢量图像在内存中进行的。)

### 图表

• TAChart - Lazarus图表组件。
• PlotPanel - 一个绘制图表的组件。
• Perlin Noise - 一篇关于在LCL上使用柏林噪声的文章。

## LCL图形模型简介

LCL提供两种绘图类：原生类和非原生类。原生类是是LCL绘图最传统的方式，也是最重要的一条，而对于非原生类是互补的，也是非常重要的。原生类大分布在Graphics面板里，众所周知的类：TBitmap, TCanvas, TFont, TBrush, TPen, TPortableNetworkGraphic等等。

TCanvas is a class capable of executing drawings. It cannot exist alone and must either be attached to something visible (or at least which may possibly be visible), such as a visual control descending from TControl, or be attached to an off-screen buffer from a TRasterImage descendent (TBitmap is the most commonly used). TFont, TBrush and TPen describe how the drawing of various operations will be executed in the Canvas.

TCanvas是能够执行绘图的类。它不能单独存在，需要附加到一些可见的（至少它可能是可见的），如，TControl，或附加到TRasterImage（TBitmap是最常用的）。TFont、TBrush和TPen 用来在画布上绘制。

TRasterImage (usually used via its descendant TBitmap) is a memory area reserved for drawing graphics, but it is created for maximum compatibility with the native Canvas and therefore in LCL-Gtk2 in X11 it is located in the X11 server, which makes pixel access via the Pixels property extremely slow. In Windows it is very fast because Windows allows creating a locally allocated image which can receive drawings from a Windows Canvas.

TRasterImage(通常其后代TBitmap)是一个内存区域绘制图形，但它为最大兼容本地创建画布，因此在X11 LCL-Gtk2它位于X11服务器，这使得通过像素像素访问属性极其缓慢。在Windows中它是非常快的，因为Windows允许创建一个本地分配图像可以从Windows接收的绘制画布。

Besides these there are also non-native drawing classes located in the units graphtype (TRawImage), intfgraphics (TLazIntfImage) and lazcanvas (TLazCanvas, this one exists in Lazarus 0.9.31+). TRawImage is the storage and description of a memory area which contains an image. TLazIntfImage is an image which attaches itself to a TRawImage and takes care of converting between TFPColor and the real pixel format of the TRawImage. TLazCanvas is a non-native Canvas which can draw to an image in a TLazIntfImage.

The main difference between the native classes and the non-native ones is that the native ones do not perform exactly the same in all platforms, because the drawing is done by the underlying platform itself. The speed and also the exact final result of the image drawing can have differences. The non-native classes are guaranteed to perform exactly the same drawing in all platforms with a pixel level precision and they all perform reasonably fast in all platforms.

In the widgetset LCL-CustomDrawn the native classes are implemented using the non-native ones.

## 使用TCanvas

### 使用默认GUI字体

SelectObject(Canvas.Handle, GetStockObject(DEFAULT_GUI_FONT));

### Drawing a text limited on the width

Use the DrawText routine, first with DT_CALCRECT and then without it.

// 首先计算文本大小，然后绘制它
TextBox := Rect(0, currentPos.Y, Width, High(Integer));
DrawText(ACanvas.Handle, PChar(Text), Length(Text),
TextBox, DT_WORDBREAK or DT_INTERNAL or DT_CALCRECT);

DrawText(ACanvas.Handle, PChar(Text), Length(Text),
TextBox, DT_WORDBREAK or DT_INTERNAL);

### 锐化文本边缘 (非抗锯齿)

Canvas.Font.Quality := fqNonAntialiased;

Some widgetsets like the gtk2 do not support this and always paint antialiased. Here is a simple procedure to draw text with sharp edges under gtk2. It does not consider all cases, but it should give an idea:

procedure PaintAliased(Canvas: TCanvas; x,y: integer; const TheText: string);
var
w,h: integer;
IntfImg: TLazIntfImage;
Img: TBitmap;
dy: Integer;
dx: Integer;
col: TFPColor;
FontColor: TColor;
c: TColor;
begin
w:=0;
h:=0;
Canvas.GetTextSize(TheText,w,h);
if (w<=0) or (h<=0) then exit;
Img:=TBitmap.Create;
IntfImg:=nil;
try
// paint text to a bitmap
Img.SetSize(w,h);
Img.Canvas.Brush.Style:=bsSolid;
Img.Canvas.Brush.Color:=clWhite;
Img.Canvas.FillRect(0,0,w,h);
Img.Canvas.Font:=Canvas.Font;
Img.Canvas.TextOut(0,0,TheText);
// get memory image
IntfImg:=Img.CreateIntfImage;
// replace gray pixels
FontColor:=ColorToRGB(Canvas.Font.Color);
for dy:=0 to h-1 do begin
for dx:=0 to w-1 do begin
col:=IntfImg.Colors[dx,dy];
c:=FPColorToTColor(col);
if c<>FontColor then
IntfImg.Colors[dx,dy]:=colTransparent;
end;
end;
// create bitmap
// paint
Canvas.Draw(x,y,Img);
finally
IntfImg.Free;
Img.Free;
end;
end;

## 使用 TBitmap 和其他 TGraphic 后代

The TBitmap object stores a bitmap where you can draw before showing it to the screen. When you create a bitmap, you must specify the height and width, otherwise it will be zero and nothing will be drawn. And in general all other TRasterImage descendents provide the same capabilities. One should use the one which matches the format desired for output/input from the disk or TBitmap in case disk operations will not be performed as well as for the Windows Bitmap (*.bmp) format.

### 加载(保存)一个图像从(到)磁盘

To load an image from the disk use TGraphic.LoadFromFile and to save it to another disk file use TGraphic.SaveToFile. Use the appropriate TGraphic descendent which matches the format expected. See Developing_with_Graphics#Image_formats for a list of available image format classes.

var
MyBitmap: TBitmap;
begin
MyBitmap := TBitmap.Create;
try

// Here you can use MyBitmap.Canvas to read/write to/from the image

// Write back to another disk file
MyBitmap.SaveToFile(MyEdit2.Text);
finally
MyBitmap.Free;
end;
end;

When using any other format the process is compelely identical, just use the adequate class. For example, for PNG images:

var
MyPNG: TPortableNetworkGraphic;
begin
MyPNG := TPortableNetworkGraphic.Create;
try

// Here you can use MyPNG.Canvas to read/write to/from the image

// Write back to another disk file
MyPNG.SaveToFile(MyEdit2.Text);
finally
MyPNG.Free;
end;
end;

If you don't know beforehand the format of the image, use TPicture which will determine the format based in the file extension. Note that TPicture does not support all formats supported by Lazarus, as of Lazarus 0.9.31 it supports BMP, PNG, JPEG, Pixmap and PNM while Lazarus also supports ICNS and other formats:

var
MyPicture: TPicture;
begin
MyPicture := TPicture.Create;
try

// Here you can use MyPicture.Graphic.Canvas to read/write to/from the image

// Write back to another disk file
MyPicture.SaveToFile(MyEdit2.Text);
finally
MyPicture.Free;
end;
end;

### 直接存取像素

To do directly access the pixels of bitmaps one can either use external libraries, such as BGRABitmap, LazRGBGraphics and Graphics32 or use the Lazarus native TLazIntfImage. For a comparison of pixel access methods, see fast direct pixel access.

On some Lazarus widgetsets (notably LCL-Gtk2), the bitmap data is not stored in memory location which can be accessed by the application and in general the LCL native interfaces draw only through native Canvas routines, so each SetPixel / GetPixel operation involves a slow call to the native Canvas API. In LCL-CustomDrawn this is not the case since the bitmap is locally stored for all backends and SetPixel / GetPixel is fast. For obtaining a solution which works in all widgetsets one should use TLazIntfImage. As Lazarus is meant to be platform independent and work in gtk2, the TBitmap class does not provide a property like Scanline. There is a GetDataLineStart function, equivalent to Scanline, but only available for memory images like TLazIntfImage which internally uses TRawImage.

To sum it up, with the standard TBitmap, you can only change pixels indirectly, by using TCanvas.Pixels. Calling a native API to draw / read an individual pixel is course slower than direct pixel access, notably so in LCL-gtk2 and LCL-Carbon.

### 位图颜色透明

A new feature, implemented on Lazarus 0.9.11, is color transparent bitmaps. Bitmap files (*.BMP) cannot store any information about transparency, but they can work as they had if you select a color on them to represent the transparent area. This is a common trick used on Win32 applications.

The following example loads a bitmap from a Windows resource, selects a color to be transparent (clFuchsia) and then draws it to a canvas.

procedure MyForm.MyButtonOnClick(Sender: TObject);
var
buffer: THandle;
bmp: TBitmap;
memstream: TMemoryStream;
begin
bmp := TBitmap.Create;

bmp.Handle := buffer;
memstream := TMemoryStream.create;
try
bmp.SaveToStream(memstream);
memstream.position := 0;
finally
memstream.free;
end;

bmp.Transparent := True;
bmp.TransparentColor := clFuchsia;

MyCanvas.Draw(0, 0, bmp);

bmp.Free; // Release allocated resource
end;

Notice the memory operations performed with the TMemoryStream. They are necessary to ensure the correct loading of the image.

### 屏幕截图

Since Lazarus 0.9.16 you can use LCL to take screenshots of the screen in a cross-platform way. The following example code does it:

uses Graphics, LCLIntf, LCLType;
...
var
MyBitmap: TBitmap;
ScreenDC: HDC;
begin
MyBitmap := TBitmap.Create;
ScreenDC := GetDC(0);
ReleaseDC(0,ScreenDC);
...

## 使用 TLazIntfImage、TRawImage和TLazCanvas

TLazIntfImage is a non-native equivalent of TRasterImage (more commonly utilized in the form of it's descendent TBitmap). The first thing to be aware about this class is that unlike TBitmap it will not automatically allocate a memory area for the bitmap, one should first initialize a memory area and then give it to the TLazIntfImage. Right after creating a TLazIntfImage one should either connect it to a TRawImage or load it from a TBitmap.

TRawImage is of the type object and therefore does not need to be created nor freed. It can either allocate the image memory itself when one calls TRawImage.CreateData or one can pass a memory block allocated for examply by a 3rd party library such as the Windows API of the Cocoa Framework from Mac OS X and pass the information of the image in TRawImage.Description, TRawImage.Data and TRawImage.DataSize. Instead of attaching it to a RawImage one could also load it from a TBitmap which will copy the data from the TBitmap and won't be syncronized with it afterwards. The TLazCanvas cannot exist alone and must always be attached to a TLazIntfImage.

The example below shows how to choose a format for the data and ask the TRawImage to create it for us and then we attach it to a TLazIntfImage and then attach a TLazCanvas to it:

uses graphtype, intfgraphics, lazcanvas;

var
AImage: TLazIntfImage;
ACanvas: TLazCanvas;
lRawImage: TRawImage;
begin
lRawImage.Init;
lRawImage.Description.Init_BPP32_A8R8G8B8_BIO_TTB(AWidth, AHeight);
lRawImage.CreateData(True);
AImage := TLazIntfImage.Create(0,0);
AImage.SetRawImage(lRawImage);
ACanvas := TLazCanvas.Create(AImage);

### 初始化 TLazIntfImage

One cannot simply create an instance of TLazIntfImage and start using it. It needs to add a storage to it. There are 3 ways to do this:

1. Attach it to a TRawImage

2. Load it from a TBitmap. Note that it will copy the memory of the TBitmap so it won't remain connected to it.

   SrcIntfImg:=TLazIntfImage.Create(0,0);
SrcIntfImg.LoadFromBitmap(ABitmap.Handle,ABitmap.MaskHandle);

3. Load it from a raw image description, like this:

   IntfImg := TLazIntfImage.Create(0,0);
IntfImg.SetSize(10,10);

The 0 device in GetDescriptionFromDevice(0) uses the current screen format.

Here is an example how to load an image directly into a TLazIntfImage. It initializes the TLazIntfImage to a 32bit RGBA format. Keep in mind that this is probably not the native format of your screen.

uses LazLogger, Graphics, IntfGraphics, GraphType;
procedure TForm1.FormCreate(Sender: TObject);
var
AImage: TLazIntfImage;
lRawImage: TRawImage;
begin
// create a TLazIntfImage with 32 bits per pixel, alpha 8bit, red 8 bit, green 8bit, blue 8bit,
// Bits In Order: bit 0 is pixel 0, Top To Bottom: line 0 is top
lRawImage.Init;
lRawImage.Description.Init_BPP32_A8R8G8B8_BIO_TTB(0,0);
lRawImage.CreateData(false);
AImage := TLazIntfImage.Create(0,0);
try
AImage.SetRawImage(lRawImage);
// Load an image from disk.
// It uses the file extension to select the right registered image reader.
// The AImage will be resized to the width, height of the loaded image.
debugln(['TForm1.FormCreate ',AImage.Width,' ',AImage.Height]);
finally
AImage.Free;
end;
end;

### 加载 TLazIntfImage 到 TImage

The pixel data of a TImage is the TImage.Picture property, which is of type TPicture. TPicture is a multi format container containing one of several common image formats like Bitmap, Icon, Jpeg or PNG . Usually you will use the TPicture.Bitmap to load a TLazIntfImage:

    Image1.Picture.Bitmap.LoadFromIntfImage(IntfImg);

• To load a transparent TLazIntfImage you have to set the Image1.Transparent to true.
• TImage uses the screen format. If the TLazIntfImage has a different format then the pixels will be converted. Hint: You can use IntfImg.DataDescription:=GetDescriptionFromDevice(0); to initialize the TLazIntfImage with the screen format.

### 淡出效果

{ This code has been taken from the \$LazarusPath/examples/lazintfimage/fadein1.lpi project. }
uses LCLType, // HBitmap type
IntfGraphics, // TLazIntfImage type
fpImage; // TFPColor type
...
var
SrcIntfImg, TempIntfImg: TLazIntfImage;
px, py: Integer;
CurColor: TFPColor;
TempBitmap: TBitmap;
begin
SrcIntfImg:=TLazIntfImage.Create(0,0);
TempIntfImg:=TLazIntfImage.Create(0,0);
TempBitmap:=TBitmap.Create;
for FadeStep:=1 to 32 do begin
for py:=0 to SrcIntfImg.Height-1 do begin
for px:=0 to SrcIntfImg.Width-1 do begin
CurColor:=SrcIntfImg.Colors[px,py];
TempIntfImg.Colors[px,py]:=CurColor;
end;
end;
TempBitmap.Handle:=ImgHandle;
Canvas.Draw(0,0,TempBitmap);
end;
SrcIntfImg.Free;
TempIntfImg.Free;
TempBitmap.Free;
end;

### 图像格式示例

If you know that the TBitmap is using blue 8bit, green 8bit, red 8bit you can directly access the bytes, which is somewhat faster:

uses LCLType, // HBitmap type
IntfGraphics, // TLazIntfImage type
fpImage; // TFPColor type
...
type
TRGBTripleArray = array[0..32767] of TRGBTriple;
PRGBTripleArray = ^TRGBTripleArray;

var
IntfImg1, IntfImg2: TLazIntfImage;
px, py: Integer;
CurColor: TFPColor;
TempBitmap: TBitmap;
Row1, Row2: PRGBTripleArray;
begin
IntfImg1:=TLazIntfImage.Create(0,0);

IntfImg2:=TLazIntfImage.Create(0,0);

TempBitmap:=TBitmap.Create;

//with Scanline-like
for FadeStep:=1 to 32 do begin
for py:=0 to IntfImg1.Height-1 do begin
Row1 := IntfImg1.GetDataLineStart(py); //like Delphi TBitMap.ScanLine
Row2 := IntfImg2.GetDataLineStart(py); //like Delphi TBitMap.ScanLine
for px:=0 to IntfImg1.Width-1 do begin
Row2^[px].rgbtRed:= (FadeStep * Row1^[px].rgbtRed) shr 5;
Row2^[px].rgbtBlue := (FadeStep * Row1^[px].rgbtBlue) shr 5;
end;
end;

TempBitmap.Handle:=ImgHandle;
Canvas.Draw(0,0,TempBitmap);
end;

IntfImg1.Free;
IntfImg2.Free;
TempBitmap.Free;
end;

### TLazIntfImage和TBitmap相互转换

Since Lazarus has no TBitmap.ScanLines property, the best way to access the pixels of an image in a fast way for both reading and writing is by using TLazIntfImage. The TBitmap can be converted to a TLazIntfImage by using TBitmap.CreateIntfImage() and after modifying the pixels it can be converted back to a TBitmap by using TBitmap.LoadFromIntfImage(); Here's the sample on how to create TLazIntfImage from TBitmap, modify it and then go back to the TBitmap.

uses
...GraphType, IntfGraphics, LCLType, LCLProc,  LCLIntf ...

procedure TForm1.Button4Click(Sender: TObject);
var
b: TBitmap;
t: TLazIntfImage;
begin
b := TBitmap.Create;
try
t := b.CreateIntfImage;

// Read and/or write to the pixels
t.Colors[10,20] := colGreen;

finally
t.Free;
b.Free;
end;
end;

### 使用LazCanvas中非原生的StretchDraw

Just like TCanvas.StretchDraw there is TLazCanvas.StretchDraw but you need to specify the interpolation which you desire to use. The interpolation which provides a Windows-like StretchDraw with a very sharp result (the opposite of anti-aliased) can be added with: TLazCanvas.Interpolation := TFPSharpInterpolation.Create;

There are other interpolations available in the unit fpcanvas.

uses intfgraphics, lazcanvas;

procedure TForm1.StretchDrawBitmapToBitmap(SourceBitmap, DestBitmap: TBitmap; DestWidth, DestHeight: integer);
var
DestIntfImage, SourceIntfImage: TLazIntfImage;
DestCanvas: TLazCanvas;
begin
// Prepare the destination

DestIntfImage := TLazIntfImage.Create(0, 0);

DestCanvas := TLazCanvas.Create(DestIntfImage);

//Prepare the source
SourceIntfImage := TLazIntfImage.Create(0, 0);

// Execute the stretch draw via TFPSharpInterpolation
DestCanvas.Interpolation := TFPSharpInterpolation.Create;
DestCanvas.StretchDraw(0, 0, DestWidth, DestHeight, SourceIntfImage);

// Reload the image into the TBitmap

SourceIntfImage.Free;
DestCanvas.Interpolation.Free;
DestCanvas.Free;
DestIntfImage.Free;
end;

procedure TForm1.FormPaint(Sender: TObject);
var
Bmp, DestBitmap: TBitmap;
begin
// Prepare the destination
DestBitmap := TBitmap.Create;
DestBitmap.Width := 100;
DestBitmap.Height := 100;

Bmp := TBitmap.Create;
Bmp.Width := 10;
Bmp.Height := 10;
Bmp.Canvas.Pen.Color := clYellow;
Bmp.Canvas.Brush.Color := clYellow;
Bmp.Canvas.Rectangle(0, 0, 10, 10);
StretchDrawBitmapToBitmap(Bmp, DestBitmap, 100, 100);
Canvas.Draw(0, 0, Bmp);
Canvas.Draw(100, 100, DestBitmap);
end;

## 动画 - 如何避免闪烁

Many programs draw their output to the GUI as 2D graphics. If those graphics need to change quickly you will soon face a problem: quickly changing graphics often flicker on the screen. This happens when users sometimes sees the whole images and sometimes only when it is partially drawn. It occurs because the painting process requires time.

But how can I avoid the flickering and get the best drawing speed? Of course you could work with hardware acceleration using OpenGL, but this approach is quite heavy for small programs or old computers. This tutorial will focus on drawing to a TCanvas. If you need help with OpenGL, take a look at the example that comes with Lazarus. You can also use A.J. Venter's gamepack, which provides a double-buffered canvas and a sprite component.

A brief and very helpful article on avoiding flicker can be found at http://delphi.about.com/library/bluc/text/uc052102g.htm. Although written for Delphi, the techniques work well with Lazarus.

Now we will examine the options we have for drawing to a Canvas:

### TImage绘图

A TImage consists of 2 parts: A TGraphic, usually a TBitmap, holding the persistent picture and the visual area, which is repainted on every OnPaint. Resizing the TImage does not resize the bitmap. The graphic (or bitmap) is accessible via Image1.Picture.Graphic (or Image1.Picture.Bitmap). The canvas is Image1.Picture.Bitmap.Canvas. The canvas of the visual area of a TImage is only accessible during Image1.OnPaint via Image1.Canvas.

Important: Never use the OnPaint of the Image1 event to draw to the graphic/bitmap of a TImage. The graphic of a TImage is buffered so all you need to do is draw to it from anywhere and the change is there forever. However, if you are constantly redrawing, the image will flicker. In this case you can try the other options. Drawing to a TImage is considered slower then the other approaches.

#### 调整TImage位图

Note: Do not use this during OnPaint.

with Image1.Picture.Bitmap do begin
Width:=100;
Height:=120;
end;

Same in one step:

with Image1.Picture.Bitmap do begin
SetSize(100, 120);
end;

#### 绘制TImage位图

Note: Do not use this during OnPaint.

with Image1.Picture.Bitmap.Canvas do begin
// fill the entire bitmap with red
Brush.Color := clRed;
FillRect(0, 0, Width, Height);
end;

Note: Inside of Image1.OnPaint the Image1.Canvas points to the volatile visible area. Outside of Image1.OnPaint the Image1.Canvas points to Image1.Picture.Bitmap.Canvas.

Another example:

procedure TForm1.BitBtn1Click(Sender: TObject);
var
x, y: Integer;
begin
// Draws the backgroung
MyImage.Canvas.Pen.Color := clWhite;
MyImage.Canvas.Rectangle(0, 0, Image.Width, Image.Height);

// Draws squares
MyImage.Canvas.Pen.Color := clBlack;
for x := 1 to 8 do
for y := 1 to 8 do
MyImage.Canvas.Rectangle(Round((x - 1) * Image.Width / 8), Round((y - 1) * Image.Height / 8),
Round(x * Image.Width / 8), Round(y * Image.Height / 8));
end;

#### Painting on the volatile visual area of the TImage

You can only paint on this area during OnPaint. OnPaint is eventually called automatically by the LCL when the area was invalidated. You can invalidate the area manually with Image1.Invalidate. This will not immediately call OnPaint and you can call Invalidate as many times as you want.

procedure TForm.Image1Paint(Sender: TObject);
begin
// paint a line
Canvas.Pen.Color := clRed;
Canvas.Line(0, 0, Width, Height);
end;

### OnPaint事件是绘制

In this case all the drawing has to be done on the OnPaint event of the form, or of another control. The drawing isn't buffered like in the TImage, and it needs to be fully redrawn in each call of the OnPaint event handler.

procedure TForm.Form1Paint(Sender: TObject);
begin
// paint a line
Canvas.Pen.Color := clRed;
Canvas.Line(0, 0, Width, Height);
end;

### 创建自定义控件绘制自身

Creating a custom control has the advantage of structuring your code and you can reuse the control. This approach is very fast, but it can still generate flickering if you don't draw to a TBitmap first and then draw to the canvas. On this case there is no need to use the OnPaint event of the control.

Here is an example custom control:

uses
Classes, SysUtils, Controls, Graphics, LCLType;

type
TMyDrawingControl = class(TCustomControl)
public
procedure EraseBackground(DC: HDC); override;
procedure Paint; override;
end;

implementation

procedure TMyDrawingControl.EraseBackground(DC: HDC);
begin
// Uncomment this to enable default background erasing
//inherited EraseBackground(DC);
end;

procedure TMyDrawingControl.Paint;
var
x, y: Integer;
Bitmap: TBitmap;
begin
Bitmap := TBitmap.Create;
try
// Initializes the Bitmap Size
Bitmap.Height := Height;
Bitmap.Width := Width;

// Draws the background
Bitmap.Canvas.Pen.Color := clWhite;
Bitmap.Canvas.Rectangle(0, 0, Width, Height);

// Draws squares
Bitmap.Canvas.Pen.Color := clBlack;
for x := 1 to 8 do
for y := 1 to 8 do
Bitmap.Canvas.Rectangle(Round((x - 1) * Width / 8), Round((y - 1) * Height / 8),
Round(x * Width / 8), Round(y * Height / 8));

Canvas.Draw(0, 0, Bitmap);
finally
Bitmap.Free;
end;

inherited Paint;
end;

and how we create it on the form:

procedure TMyForm.FormCreate(Sender: TObject);
begin
MyDrawingControl := TMyDrawingControl.Create(Self);
MyDrawingControl.Height := 400;
MyDrawingControl.Width := 500;
MyDrawingControl.Top := 0;
MyDrawingControl.Left := 0;
MyDrawingControl.Parent := Self;
MyDrawingControl.DoubleBuffered := True;
end;

It is destroyed automatically, because we use Self as owner.

Setting Top and Left to zero is not necessary, since this is the standard position, but is done so to reinforce where the control will be put.

"MyDrawingControl.Parent := Self;" is very important and you won't see your control if you don't do so.

"MyDrawingControl.DoubleBuffered := True;" is required to avoid flickering on Windows. It has no effect on gtk.

## 图像格式

Cursor (cur) TCursor Graphics
Bitmap (bmp) TBitmap Graphics
Windows icon (ico) TIcon Graphics
Mac OS X icon (icns) TicnsIcon Graphics
Pixmap (xpm) TPixmap Graphics
Portable Network Graphic (png) TPortableNetworkGraphic Graphics
JPEG (jpg, jpeg) TJpegImage Graphics
PNM (pnm) TPortableAnyMapGraphic Graphics
Tiff (tif) TTiffImage Graphics

### 格式转换

Sometimes it must be necessary to convert one graphic type to another. One of the ways is to convert a graphic to intermediate format, and then convert it to TBitmap. Most of the formats can create an image from TBitmap.

Converting Bitmap to PNG and saving it to a file:

procedure SaveToPng(const bmp: TBitmap; PngFileName: String);
var
png : TPortableNetworkGraphic;
begin
png := TPortableNetworkGraphic.Create;
try
png.Assign(bmp);
png.SaveToFile(PngFileName);
finally
png.Free;
end;
end;

## Pixel Formats

### TColor

The internal pixel format for TColor in the LCL is the XXBBGGRR format, which matches the native Windows format and is opposite to most other libraries, which use AARRGGBB. The XX part is used to identify if the color is a fixed color, which case XX should be 00 or if it is an index to a system color. There is no space reserved for an alpha channel.

To convert from separate RGB channels to TColor use:

RGBToColor(RedVal, GreenVal, BlueVal);

To get each channel of a TColor variable use the Red, Green and Blue functions:

RedVal := Red(MyColor);
GreenVal := Green(MyColor);
BlueVal := Blue(MyColor);

### TFPColor

TFPColor uses the AARRGGBB format common to most libraries, but it uses 16-bits for the depth of each color channel, totaling 64-bits per pixel, which is unusual. This does not necessarily mean that images will consume that much memory, however. Images created using TRawImage+TLazIntfImage can have any internal storage format and then on drawing operations TFPColor is converted to this internal format.

The unit Graphics provides routines to convert between TColor and TFPColor:

function FPColorToTColorRef(const FPColor: TFPColor): TColorRef;
function FPColorToTColor(const FPColor: TFPColor): TColor;
function TColorToFPColor(const c: TColorRef): TFPColor; overload;
function TColorToFPColor(const c: TColor): TFPColor; overload; // does not work on system color

## 绘制FCL图像

You can draw images which won't be displayed in the screen without the LCL, by just using fcl-image directly. For example a program running on a webserver without X11 could benefit from not having a visual library as a dependency. FPImage (alias fcl-image) is a very generic image and drawing library written completely in pascal. In fact the LCL uses FPImage too for all the loading and saving from/to files and implements the drawing function through calls to the widgetset (winapi, gtk, carbon, ...). Fcl-image on the other hand also has drawing routines.