# Multiplatform Programming Guide

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Most LCL applications work in a cross-platform way without any extra effort.

This is a tutorial on writing cross-platform applications with Lazarus and Free Pascal. It will cover the necessary precautions to aid in creating a cross-platform ready program that is ready to deploy.

## Introduction to Multiplatform (Cross-platform) Programming

### How many platforms do you need?

To answer this question, you should first determine who your potential users are and how your program will be used. This question depends on where you are deploying your application.

If you are developing generic desktop software in 2014, Microsoft Windows may be the most important platform. Note that Mac OS X and/or Linux are making gaining in popularity, and may be a significant target for your application.

The popularity of the various desktop operating systems differs by country, by the type of software used, and with the target audience; there's no general rule. For example, Mac OS X is quite popular in North America and western Europe, while in South America Macs are mostly restricted to video and sound work.

On many contract projects, only one platform is relevant. Free Pascal and Lazarus are quite capable of writing software targeted at a specific platform. You can, for example, access the full Windows API to write a well integrated Windows program.

If you're developing software that will run on a Web server, a Unix platform in one of its various flavors is commonly used. In this case, perhaps only Linux, Solaris, *BSD and other Unixes make sense as your target platforms, although you may want to add support for Windows for completeness.

Once you've addressed any cross-platform issues in your design, you can largely ignore the other platforms, much as you would when developing for a single platform. However, at some point you'll need to test deploying and running your program on the other platforms. For that, it will be helpful to have unrestricted access to machines running the target operating systems. If you don't want multiple physical computers, investigate dual-booting or VM solutions like VMware or Parallels.

## Cross-platform Programming

### Working with files and folders

When working with files and folders, this is important to use non-platform specific path delimiters and line ending sequences. Here is a list of declared constants in Lazarus to be used when working with files and folders.

• PathSep, PathSeparator: path separator when adding many paths together (';', ...)
• PathDelim, DirectorySeparator: directory separator for each platform ('/', '\', ...)
• LineEnding: proper line ending character sequence (#13#10 - CRLF, #10 - LF, ...)

Another important thing to be noted is the case sensitiveness of the file system. On Windows filenames are usually not case sensitive, while they usually are on Linux and BSD platforms. But if a EXT2, EXT3, etc file system is mounted on Windows, it would be case-sensitive. Respectively a FAT file system mounted on Linux should not be case sensitive.

It shall be paid special attention, that NTFS is non-case sensitive when used in Windows, but it is case sensitive when mounted by POSIX OSes. This could cause various problems, including loss of files if files with same filenames in different cases exist on a NTFS partition, mounted in Windows. Using custom functions for checking and preventing creation of several files with the same names on NTFS should be considered by the developers.

Mac OS X use case insensitive filenames by default. This can be the cause of annoying bugs, so any portable application should use consistently filenames.

The RTL file functions use the system encoding for file names. Under Windows this is one of the windows code pages, while Linux, BSD and Mac OS X usually use UTF-8. The unit FileUtil of the LCL provides file functions which takes UTF-8 strings like the rest of the LCL.

// AnsiToUTF8 and UTF8ToAnsi need a widestring manager under Linux, BSD, MacOSX
// but normally these OS use UTF-8 as system encoding so the widestringmanager
// is not needed.
function NeedRTLAnsi: boolean;// true if system encoding is not UTF-8
procedure SetNeedRTLAnsi(NewValue: boolean);
function UTF8ToSys(const s: string): string;// as UTF8ToAnsi but more independent of widestringmanager
function SysToUTF8(const s: string): string;// as AnsiToUTF8 but more independent of widestringmanager
function UTF8ToConsole(const s: string): string;// converts UTF8 string to console encoding (used by Write, WriteLn)

// file operations
function FileExistsUTF8(const Filename: string): boolean;
function FileAgeUTF8(const FileName: string): Longint;
function DirectoryExistsUTF8(const Directory: string): Boolean;
function ExpandFileNameUTF8(const FileName: string): string;
function ExpandUNCFileNameUTF8(const FileName: string): string;
function ExtractShortPathNameUTF8(Const FileName : String) : String;
function FindFirstUTF8(const Path: string; Attr: Longint; out Rslt: TSearchRec): Longint;
function FindNextUTF8(var Rslt: TSearchRec): Longint;
procedure FindCloseUTF8(var F: TSearchrec);
function FileSetDateUTF8(const FileName: String; Age: Longint): Longint;
function FileGetAttrUTF8(const FileName: String): Longint;
function FileSetAttrUTF8(const Filename: String; Attr: longint): Longint;
function DeleteFileUTF8(const FileName: String): Boolean;
function RenameFileUTF8(const OldName, NewName: String): Boolean;
function FileSearchUTF8(const Name, DirList : String): String;
function GetCurrentDirUTF8: String;
function SetCurrentDirUTF8(const NewDir: String): Boolean;
function CreateDirUTF8(const NewDir: String): Boolean;
function RemoveDirUTF8(const Dir: String): Boolean;
function ForceDirectoriesUTF8(const Dir: string): Boolean;

// environment
function ParamStrUTF8(Param: Integer): string;
function GetEnvironmentStringUTF8(Index: Integer): string;
function GetEnvironmentVariableUTF8(const EnvVar: string): String;
function GetAppConfigDirUTF8(Global: Boolean): string;

// other
function SysErrorMessageUTF8(ErrorCode: Integer): String;

### Empty file names and double path delimiters

There are differences in file/directory name handling in Windows versus Linux/Unix/Unix like systems.

• Windows allows empty file names. That's why FileExistsUTF8('..\') checks under Windows in the parent directory for a file without name.
• On Linux/Unix/Unix-like systems an empty file is mapped to the directory and directories are treated as files. This means that FileExistsUTF8('../') under Unix checks for the existence of the parent directory, which normally results true.

Double path delimiters in file names are also treated differently:

• Windows: 'C:\' is not the same as 'C:\\'
• Unix like OS: the path '/usr//' is the same as '/usr/'. If '/usr' is a directory then even all three are the same.

This is important when concatenating file names. For example:

FullFilename:=FilePath+PathDelim+ShortFilename; // can result in two PathDelims which gives different results under Windows and Linux
FullFilename:=AppendPathDelim(FilePath)+ShortFilename); // creates only one PathDelim
FullFilename:=TrimFilename(FilePath+PathDelim+ShortFilename); // creates only one PathDelim and do some more clean up

The function TrimFilename replaces double path delimiters with single ones and shorten '..' paths. For example /usr//lib/../src is trimmed to /usr/src.

If you want to know if a directory exists use DirectoryExistsUTF8.

Another common task is to check if the path part of a file name exists. You can get the path with ExtractFilePath, but this will contain the path delimiter.

• Under Unix like system you can simply use FileExistsUTF8 on the path. For example FileExistsUTF8('/home/user/') will return true if the directory /home/user exists.
• Under Windows you must use the DirectoryExistsUTF8 function, but before that you must delete the path delimiter, for example with the ChompPathDelim function.

Under Unix like systems the root directory is '/' and using the ChompPathDelim function will create an empty string. The function DirPathExists works like the DirectoryExistsUTF8 function, but trims the given path.

Note that Unix/Linux uses the '~' (tilde) symbol to stand for the home directory, typically '/home/jim/' for a user called jim. So '~/myapp/myfile' and '/home/jim/myapp/myfile' are identical on the command line and in scripts. However, the tilde is not automatically expanded by Lazarus. It is necessary to use ExpandFileNameUTF8('~/myapp/myfile') to get the full path.

### Text encoding

Text files are often encoded in the current system encoding. Under Windows this is usually one of the windows code pages, while Linux, BSD, and Mac OS X usually use UTF-8. There is no 100% rule to find out which encoding a text file uses. The LCL unit lconvencoding has a function to guess the encoding:

function GuessEncoding(const s: string): string;
function GetDefaultTextEncoding: string;

And it contains functions to convert from one encoding to another:

function ConvertEncoding(const s, FromEncoding, ToEncoding: string): string;

function UTF8BOMToUTF8(const s: string): string; // UTF8 with BOM
function ISO_8859_1ToUTF8(const s: string): string; // central europe
function CP1250ToUTF8(const s: string): string; // central europe
function CP1251ToUTF8(const s: string): string; // cyrillic
function CP1252ToUTF8(const s: string): string; // latin 1
...
function UTF8ToUTF8BOM(const s: string): string; // UTF8 with BOM
function UTF8ToISO_8859_1(const s: string): string; // central europe
function UTF8ToCP1250(const s: string): string; // central europe
function UTF8ToCP1251(const s: string): string; // cyrillic
function UTF8ToCP1252(const s: string): string; // latin 1
...

For example to load a text file and convert it to UTF-8 you can use:

var
sl: TStringList;
OriginalText: String;
TextAsUTF8: String;
begin
sl:=TStringList.Create;
try
sl.LoadFromFile('sometext.txt'); // beware: this changes line endings to system line endings
OriginalText:=sl.Text;
TextAsUTF8:=ConvertEncoding(OriginalText,GuessEncoding(OriginalText),EncodingUTF8);
...
finally
sl.Free;
end;
end;

And to save a text file in the system encoding you can use:

sl.Text:=ConvertEncoding(TextAsUTF8,EncodingUTF8,GetDefaultTextEncoding);
sl.SaveToFile('sometext.txt');

### Configuration files

You can use the GetAppConfigDir function from SysUtils unit to get a suitable place to store configuration files on different system. The function has one parameter, called Global. If it is True then the directory returned is a global directory, i.e. valid for all users on the system. If the parameter Global is false, then the directory is specific for the user who is executing the program. On systems that do not support multi-user environments, these two directories may be the same.

There is also the GetAppConfigFile which will return an appropriate name for an application configuration file. You can use it like this:

ConfigFilePath := GetAppConfigFile(False);

Below are examples of the output of default path functions on different systems:

program project1;

{$mode objfpc}{$H+}

uses
SysUtils;

begin
WriteLn(GetAppConfigDir(True));
WriteLn(GetAppConfigDir(False));
WriteLn(GetAppConfigFile(True));
WriteLn(GetAppConfigFile(False));
end.

The output on a GNU/Linux system with FPC 2.2.2. Note that using True is buggy, already fixed in 2.2.3:

/etc/project1/
/home/user/.config/project1/
/etc/project1.cfg
/home/user/.config/project1.cfg

You can notice that global configuration files are stored on the /etc directory and local configurations are stored on a hidden folder on the user's home directory. Directories whose name begin with a dot (.) are hidden on Linux. You can create a directory on the location returned by GetAppConfigDir and then store configuration files there.

Note: Normal users are not allowed to write to the /etc directory. Only users with administration rights can do this.

The output on recent versions of Windows with FPC 3.0.0 + :

C:\ProgramData\project1\
C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\project1\
C:\ProgramData\project1\project1.cfg
C:\Users\user\AppData\Local\project1\project1.cfg

Notice that before FPC 2.2.4 the function was using the directory where the application was to store global configurations on Windows.

The output on Windows 98 with FPC 2.2.0:

C:\Program Files\PROJECT1
C:\Windows\Local Settings\Application Data\PROJECT1
C:\Program Files\PROJECT1\PROJECT1.cfg
C:\Windows\Local Settings\Application Data\PROJECT1\PROJECT1.cfg

The output on Mac OS X with FPC 2.2.0:

/etc
/Users/user/.config/project1
/etc/project1.cfg
/Users/user/.config/project1/project1.cfg

Note: The use of UPX interferes with the use of the GetAppConfigDir and GetAppConfigFile functions.

Note: Under Mac OS X, in most cases config files are preference files, which should be XML files with the ending ".plist" and be stored in /Library/Preferences or ~/Library/Preferences with Names taken from the field "Bundle identifier" in the Info.plist of the application bundle. Using the Carbon calls CFPreference... is probably the easiest way to achieve this. .config files in the User directory are a violation of the programming guide lines.

### Data and resource files

A very common question is where to store data files an application might need, such as Images, Music, XML files, database files, help files, etc. Unfortunately there is no cross-platform function to get the best location to look for data files. The solution is to implement differently on each platform using IFDEFs.

#### Windows

On Windows, application data that the program modifies should not be put in the application's directory (e.g. C:\Program Files\) but in a specific location (see e.g. [1], under "Classify Application Data"). Windows Vista and newer actively enforce this (users only have write access to these directories when using elevation or disabling UAC) but uses a folder redirection mechanism to accommodate older, wrongly programmed applications. Just reading, not writing, data from application directories would still work.

In short: use such folder:

    OpDirLocal:= GetEnvironmentVariableUTF8('appdata')+'\MyAppName';

#### Unix/Linux

On most Unixes (like Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Solaris), application data files are located in a fixed location, which can be something like: /usr/share/app_name or /opt/app_name.

Application data that needs to be written to by the application often gets stored in places like /var/<programname>, with appropriate permissions set.

User-specific read/write config/data will normally be stored somewhere under the user's home directory (e.g. in ~/.myfancyprogram).

How to get this home dir path:

    OpDirLocal:= GetEnvironmentVariableUTF8('HOME')+'/.myappname';

#### OS X

macOS (Mac OS X) is an exception among UNIXes. Application is published in a bundle - directory with "app" extension, which is treated by file-manager as a file (you can also do "cd path/myapp.app"). Your resource files should be located inside the bundle. If bundle is "path/MyApp.app", then:

• executable file is "path/MyApp.app/Contents/MacOS/myapp"
• resources dir is "path/MyApp.app/Contents/Resources"

Save config files to the home dir:

    OpDirLocal:= GetEnvironmentVariableUTF8('HOME')+'/.myappname';

    OpDirRes:= ExtractFileDir(ExtractFileDir(Application.ExeName))+'/Resources';

Warning: never use paramstr(0) on any Unix platform to determine the location of the executable, as this is a Dos-Windows-OS/2 convention and has several conceptual problems, which cannot be solved using emulation on other platforms. The only thing paramstr(0) is guaranteed to return on Unix platforms is the name using which the program was started. The directory in which it is located and the name of the actual binary (in case it was started using a symbolic link) are not guaranteed to be available via paramstr(0).

### 32/64 bit

#### Detecting bitness at runtime

While you can control whether you compile for 32 or 64 bit with compiler defines, sometimes you want to know what bitness the operating system runs. For example, if you are running a 32 bit Lazarus program on 64 bit Windows, you might want to run an external program in a 32 bit program files directory, or you might want to give different information to users: I need this in my LazUpdater Lazarus installer to offer the user a choice of 32 and 64 bit compilers. Code: Detect Windows x32-x64 example.

#### Pointer / Integer Typecasts

Pointers under 64bit need 8 bytes instead of 4 on 32bit. The 'Integer' type remains 32bit on all platforms for compatibility. This means you can not typecast pointers into integers and back.

FPC defines two types for this: PtrInt and PtrUInt. PtrInt is a 32bit signed integer on 32 bit platforms and a 64bit signed integer on 64bit platforms. The same for PtrUInt, but unsigned integer instead.

Use for code that should work with Delphi and FPC:

{$IFNDEF FPC} type PtrInt = integer; PtrUInt = cardinal; {$ENDIF}


Replace all integer(SomePointerOrObject) with PtrInt(SomePointerOrObject).

### Endianess

Intel platforms are little endian, that means the least significant byte comes first. For example the two bytes of a word $1234 is stored as$34 $12 on little endian systems. On big endian systems like the powerpc the two bytes of a word$1234 are stored as $12$34. The difference is important when reading files created on other systems.

Use for code that should work on both:

{$IFDEF ENDIAN_BIG} ... {$ELSE}
...
{$ENDIF} The opposite is ENDIAN_LITTLE. The system unit provides plenty of endian converting functions, like SwapEndian, BEtoN (big endian to current endian), LEtoN (little endian to current endian), NtoBE (current endian to big endian) and NtoLE (current endian to little endian). #### Libc and other special units Avoid legacy units like "oldlinux" and "libc" that are not supported outside of linux/i386. #### Assembler Avoid assembler. #### Compiler defines {$ifdef CPU32}
...write here code for 32 bit processors
{$ENDIF} {$ifdef CPU64}
...write here code for 64 bit processors
,WinTricks
{$ENDIF} ; If the unit is part of a package, you must also select the unit in the package editor of the package and disable the Use unit checkbox. See also Platform specific units #### Platform specific search paths When you target several platforms and access the operating system directly, then you will quickly get tired of endless IFDEF constructions. One solution that is used often in the FPC and Lazarus sources is to use include files. Create one sub directory per target. For example win32, linux, bsd, darwin. Put into each directory an include file with the same name. Then use a macro in the include path. The unit can use a normal include directive. An example for one include file for each LCL widget set: Create one file for each widget set you want to support: win32/example.inc gtk/example.inc gtk2/example.inc carbon/example.inc  You do not need to add the files to the package or project. Add the include search path$(LCLWidgetType) to the compiler options of your package or project.

In your unit use the directive: {$I example.inc} Here are some useful macros and common values: • LCLWidgetType: win32, gtk, gtk2, qt, carbon, fpgui, nogui • TargetOS: linux, win32, win64, wince, freebsd, netbsd, openbsd, darwin (many more) • TargetCPU: i386, x86_64, arm, powerpc, sparc • SrcOS: win, unix You can use the$Env() macro to use environment variables.

And of course you can use combinations. For example the LCL uses:

$(LazarusDir)/lcl/units/$(TargetCPU)-$(TargetOS);$(LazarusDir)/lcl/units/$(TargetCPU)-$(TargetOS)/$(LCLWidgetType)  See here the complete list of macros: IDE Macros in paths and filenames #### Machine / User specific search paths For example you have two windows machines stan and oliver. On stan your units are in C:\units and on oliver your units are in D:\path. The units belong to the package SharedStuff which is C:\units\sharedstuff.lpk on stan and D:\path\sharedstuff.lpk on oliver. Once you opened the lpk in the IDE or by lazbuild, the path is automatically stored in its configuration files (packagefiles.xml). When compiling a project that requires the package SharedStuff, the IDE and lazbuild knows where it is. So no configuration is needed. If you have want to deploy a package over many machine or for all users of a machine (e.g. a pool for students), then you can add a lpl file in the lazarus source directory. See packager/globallinks for examples. ### Locale differences Some functions from Free Pascal, like StrToFloat behave differently depending on the current [locale]]. For example, in the USA the decimal separator is usually ".", but in many European and South American countries it is ",". This can be a problem as sometimes it is desired to have these functions behave in a fixed way, independently from the locale. An example is a file format with decimal points that always needs to be interpreted the same way. The next sections explain how to do that. #### StrToFloat A new set of format settings which set a fixed decimal separator can be created with the following code: // in your .lpr project file uses ... {$IFDEF UNIX}
clocale
{ required on Linux/Unix for formatsettings support. Should be one of the first (probably after cthreads?}
{$ENDIF} and: // in your code: var FPointSeparator, FCommaSeparator: TFormatSettings; begin // Format settings to convert a string to a float FPointSeparator := DefaultFormatSettings; FPointSeparator.DecimalSeparator := '.'; FPointSeparator.ThousandSeparator := '#';// disable the thousand separator FCommaSeparator := DefaultFormatSettings; FCommaSeparator.DecimalSeparator := ','; FCommaSeparator.ThousandSeparator := '#';// disable the thousand separator Later on you can use this format settings when calling StrToFloat, like this: // This function works like StrToFloat, but simply tries two possible decimal separator // This will avoid an exception when the string format doesn't match the locale function AnSemantico.StringToFloat(AStr: string): Double; begin if Pos('.', AStr) > 0 then Result := StrToFloat(AStr, FPointSeparator) else Result := StrToFloat(AStr, FCommaSeparator); end; ### Gtk2 and masking FPU exceptions Gtk2 library changes the default value of FPU (floating point unit) exception mask. The consequence of this is that some floating point exceptions do not get raised if Gtk2 library is used by the application. That means that, if for example you develop a LCL application on Windows with win32/64 widgetset (which is Windows default) and plan to compile for Linux (where Gtk2 is default widgetset), you should keep this incompatibilities in mind. After this forum topic and answers on this bug report it became clear that nothing can be done about this, so we must know what actually these differences are. Therefore, let's do a test: uses ..., math,... {...} var FPUException: TFPUException; FPUExceptionMask: TFPUExceptionMask; begin FPUExceptionMask := GetExceptionMask; for FPUException := Low(TFPUException) to High(TFPUException) do begin write(FPUException, ' - '); if not (FPUException in FPUExceptionMask) then write('not '); writeln('masked!'); end; readln; end. Our simple program will get what FPC default is:  exInvalidOp - not masked! exDenormalized - masked! exZeroDivide - not masked! exOverflow - not masked! exUnderflow - masked! exPrecision - masked!   However, with Gtk2, only exOverflow is not masked. The consequence is that EInvalidOp and EZeroDivide exceptions do not get raised if the application links to Gtk2 library! Normally, dividing non-zero value by zero raises EZeroDivide exception and dividing zero by zero raises EInvalidOp. For example the code like this: var X, A, B: Double; // ... try X := A / B; // code block 1 except // code block 2 end; // ... will take different direction when compiled in application with Gtk2 widgetset. On win widgetset, when B equals zero, an exception will get raised (EZeroDivide or EInvalidOp, depending on whether A is zero) and "code block 2" will be executed. On Gtk2 X becomes Infinity, NegInfinity, or NaN and "code block 1" will be executed. We can think of different ways to overcome this inconsistency. Most of the time you can simply test if B equals zero and don't try the dividing in that case. However, sometimes you will need some different approach. So, take a look at the following examples: uses ..., math,... //... var X, A, B: Double; Ind: Boolean; // ... try X := A / B; Ind := IsInfinite(X) or IsNan(X); // with gtk2, we fall here except Ind := True; // in windows, we fall here when B equals zero end; if Ind then begin // code block 2 end else begin // code block 1 end; // ... Or: uses ..., math,... //... var X, A, B: Double; FPUExceptionMask: TFPUExceptionMask; // ... try FPUExceptionMask := GetExceptionMask; SetExceptionMask(FPUExceptionMask - [exInvalidOp, exZeroDivide]); // unmask try X := A / B; finally SetExceptionMask(FPUExceptionMask); // return previous masking immediately, we must not let Gtk2 internals to be called without the mask end; // code block 1 except // code block 2 end; // ... Be cautious, do not do something like this (call LCL with still removed mask): try FPUExceptionMask := GetExceptionMask; SetExceptionMask(FPUExceptionMask - [exInvalidOp, exZeroDivide]); try Edit1.Text := FloatToStr(A / B); // NO! Setting Edit's text goes down to widgetset internals and Gtk2 API must not be called without the mask! finally SetExceptionMask(FPUExceptionMask); end; // code block 1 except // code block 2 end; // ... But use an auxiliary variable: try FPUExceptionMask := GetExceptionMask; SetExceptionMask(FPUExceptionMask - [exInvalidOp, exZeroDivide]); try X := A / B; // First, we set auxiliary variable X finally SetExceptionMask(FPUExceptionMask); end; Edit1.Text := FloatToStr(X); // Now we can set Edit's text. // code block 1 except // code block 2 end; // ... In all situations, when developing LCL applications, it is most important to know about this and to keep in mind that some floating point operations can go different way with different widgetsets. Then you can think of an appropriate way to workaround this, but this should not go unnoticed. ## Issues when moving from Windows to *nix etc Issues specific to Linux, OSX, Android and other Unixes are described here. Not all subjects may apply to all platforms ### On Unix there is no "application directory" Many programmers are used to call ExtractFilePath(ParamStr(0)) or Application.ExeName to get the location of the executable, and then search for the necessary files for the program execution (Images, XML files, database files, etc) based on the location of the executable. This is wrong on unixes. The string on ParamStr(0) may contain a directory other than the one of the executable, and it also varies between different shell programs (sh, bash, etc). Even if Application.ExeName could in fact know the directory where the executable is, that file could be a symbolic link, so you could get the directory of the link instead (depending on the Linux kernel version, you either get the directory of the link or of the program binary itself). To avoid this read the sections about configuration files and data files. ### Making do without Windows COM Automation With Windows, COM Automation is a powerful way not only of manipulating other programs remotely but also for allowing other programs to manipulate your program. With Delphi you can make your program both an COM Automation client and a COM Automation server, meaning it can both manipulate other programs and in turn be manipulated by other programs. For examples, see Using COM Automation to interact with OpenOffice and Microsoft Office. #### OSX alternative Unfortunately, COM Automation isn't available on OS X and Linux. However, you can simulate some of the functionality of COM Automation on OS X using AppleScript. AppleScript is similar to COM Automation in some ways. For example, you can write scripts that manipulate other programs. Here's a very simple example of AppleScript that starts NeoOffice (the Mac version of OpenOffice.org):  tell application "NeoOffice" launch end tell  An app that is designed to be manipulated by AppleScript provides a "dictionary" of classes and commands that can be used with the app, similar to the classes of a Windows Automation server. However, even apps like NeoOffice that don't provide a dictionary will still respond to the commands "launch", "activate" and "quit". AppleScript can be run from the OS X Script Editor or Finder or even converted to an app that you can drop on the dock just like any app. You can also run AppleScript from your program, as in this example:  fpsystem('myscript.applescript');  This assumes the script is in the indicated file. You can also run scripts on the fly from your app using the OS X OsaScript command:  fpsystem('osascript -e '#39'tell application "NeoOffice"'#39 + ' -e '#39'launch'#39' -e '#39'end tell'#39); {Note use of #39 to single-quote the parameters}  However, these examples are just the equivalent of the following Open command:  fpsystem('open -a NeoOffice');  Similarly, in OS X you can emulate the Windows shell commands to launch a web browser and launch an email client with:  fpsystem('open -a safari "http://gigaset.com/shc/0,1935,hq_en_0_141387_rArNrNrNrN,00.html"');  and  fpsystem('open -a mail "mailto:ss4200@invalid.org"');  which assumes, fairly safely, that an OS X system will have the Safari and Mail applications installed. Of course, you should never make assumptions like this, and for the two previous examples, you can in fact just rely on OS X to do the right thing and pick the user's default web browser and email client if you instead use these variations:  fpsystem('open "http://gigaset.com/shc/0,1935,hq_en_0_141387_rArNrNrNrN,00.html"');  and  fpsystem('open "mailto:ss4200@invalid.org"');  Do not forget to include the Unix unit in your uses clause if you use fpsystem or shell (interchangeable). The real power of AppleScript is to manipulate programs remotely to create and open documents and automate other activities. How much you can do with a program depends on how extensive its AppleScript dictionary is (if it has one). For example, Microsoft's Office X programs are not very usable with AppleScript, whereas the newer Office 2004 programs have completely rewritten AppleScript dictionaries that compare in many ways with what's available via the Windows Office Automation servers. #### Linux alternatives While Linux shells support sophisticated command line scripting, the type of scripting is limited to what can be passed to a program on the command line. There is no single, unified way to access a program's internal classes and commands with Linux the way they are via Windows COM Automation and OS X AppleScript. However, individual desktop environments (GNOME/KDE) and application frameworks often provide such methods of interprocess communication. On GNOME see Bonobo Components. KDE has the KParts framework, DCOP. OpenOffice has a platform neutral API for controlling the office remotely (google OpenOffice SDK) - though you would probably have to write glue code in another language that has bindings (such as Python) to use it. In addition, some applications have "server modes" activated by special command-line options that allow them to be controlled from another process. It is also possible (Borland did it with Kylix document browser) to "embed" one top-level X application window into another using XReparentWindow (I think). As with Windows, many OS X and Linux programs are made up of multiple library files (.dylib and .so extensions). Sometimes these libraries are designed so you can also use them in programs you write. While this can be a way of adding some of the functionality of an external program to your program, it's not really the same as running and manipulating the external program itself. Instead, your program is just linking to and using the external program's library similar to the way it would use any programming library. ### Alternatives for Windows API functions Many Windows programs use the Windows API extensively. In cross-platform applications Win API functions in the Windows unit should not be used, or should be enclosed by a conditional compile (e.g. {$IFDEF MSWINDOWS} ).

Fortunately many of the commonly used Windows API functions are implemented in a multiplatform way in the unit lclintf. This can be a solution for programs which rely heavily on the Windows API, although the best solution is to replace these calls with true cross-platform components from the LCL. You can replace calls to GDI painting functions with calls to a TCanvas object's methods, for example.

### Key codes

Fortunately, detecting key codes (e.g. on KeyUp events) is portable: see LCL Key Handling.