NumLib Documentation
Contents
 1 Introduction
 2 Data types and declarations (unit typ)
 3 Basic operations with matrices and vectors (unit omv)
 4 Determinant of a matrix (unit det)
 5 Inverse of a matrix (unit inv)
 6 Solving systems of linear equations (unit sle)
 7 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors (unit eig)
 8 Finding the roots of a function (unit roo)
 9 Numerical integration of a function (unit int)
 10 Ordinary differential equations (unit ode)
 11 Interpolation and fitting (unit ipf)
 12 Special functions (unit spe)
Introduction
NumLib is a colletion of routines for numerical mathematics. It was written by C.J.J.M. van Ginneken, W.J.P.M. Kortsmit, and L. Reij at the Technical University of Einhoven (Netherlands) and donated to the Free Pascal project. Its beginnings date back to 1965. Originally written in Algol 60, ported to poorly formatted Pascal with strange procedure names, it is hard stuff, in particular because an official documentation is not readily available (well...  Dutch documentation files in TeX can be found at http://www.stack.nl/~marcov/numlib/).
But after all, this library contains a series of very useful routines grouped into several units:
 Calculation of special functions (unit spe)
 Solution of systems of linear equations (unit sle)
 Finding roots of equations (unit roo)
 Fitting routines (unit ipf)
 Basic operations with matrices and vectors (unit omv)
 Matrix inversion (unit inv)
 Calculation of determinants (unit det)
 Calculation of eigenvalues (unit eig)
Therefore, it is the intention of this wiki article to create some useful documentation. Each routine described here was tested and its description will be accompanied by a working code example.
Note: This page heavily makes use of mathematical formulas written in LaTeX. In order to see these formulas in the browser JavaScript must be enabled.
Naming convention of routines
Would you imagine that a procedure named spears
calculates the arcsin? The original NumLib routines limit the procedure/function names to 6 characters (maybe a limitation of Algol?). The first three characters always are identical with the name of the unit in which they are implemented. This leaves only three characters to differentiate between the routines...
Routines later added to the original library are given more conventional names, such as normaldist
for calculation of the normal distribution.
Data types and declarations (unit typ)
Basic floating point type, ArbFloat
In NumLib, a new type ArbFloat
is defined which is used as floating point type throughout the entire library. This allows to switch between IEEE Double (64bit) and Extended(80bit) (though big endian state is unknown at present).
At the time of this writing the $DEFINE ArbExtended
is enabled, and therefore ArbFloat
is identical to the standard type extended
. In order to change the floating point type define or undefine ArbExtended
and adapt the machineconstants to the type selected.
Basic integer type, ArbInt
Because in plain FPC mode the type Integer is 16bits (for TP compatibility), and in Delphi 32bits, all integers were changed to ArbInt
. The basic idea is the same as with ArbFloat
.
Vectors
NumLib often passes vectors to procedures as one ArbFloat
plus some integer value. This ArbFloat
value is the first value of an array containing the vector, the integer is the count of elements used from this array. Internally an array type is mapped over the first value in order to access the other array elements. This way both 0 and 1based arrays as well as static and dynamic arrays can be passed to the functions and procedures of NumLib.
procedure DoSomething(var AVector: ArbFloat; n: Integer); type TLocalVector = array[0..MaxElements] of ArbFloat; var i: Integer; x: TLocalVector absolute AVector; begin for i:=0 to n1 do // do something with x[i] end; var x: array[1..100]; // Note: This array begins with index 1! ... DoSomething(x[1], 100);
Matrices
A matrix is a twodimensional arrangement of numbers in m rows and n columns.
 [math]{A} = \left[ \begin{array}{cccc} a_{11} & a_{12} & a_{13} & \ldots & a_{1n}\\ a_{21} & a_{22} & a_{23} & \ldots & a_{2n}\\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots\\ a_{m1} & a_{m2} & a_{m3} & \ldots & a_{mn} \end{array} \right] [/math]
The matrix elements a_{ij} are addressed by row and column indexes, i and j, respectively. In mathematics, the index values usually start with 1 (i = 1..m, j = 1..n) while in computing the first index is preferred to be 0 (i = 0...m1, j = 0...n1).
Generic matrices
In this type of matrix, no assumption is made on symmetry and shape of the data arrangement.
A constant (real) matrix can be declared in Pascal as a twodimensional array of floating point numbers: A: array[1..m, 1..n] of ArbFloat
(or A: array[0..m1, 0..n1] of ArbFloat
in 0based index notation). Similarly, a constant complex matrix can be declared as an array[1..m, 1..n] of complex
.
When a NumLib procedure needs a matrix the first (top left) matrix element must be passed as a var parameter, along with the number of rows and columns. It is even possible to allocate larger arrays as needed, and in this case the allocated row length (or number of columns) must be specified.
Alternatively a matrix also can be specified as a onedimensional array. This works because all data are found within the same memory block. The array index, k
must be converted to the 2D matrix indexes, i, j
:
k := i * n + j <==> i = k div n, j := k mod n {for 0based array and matrix indexes}
k := (i1) * n + j <==> i := (k1) div n + 1, j := (k1) mod n + 1 {for 1based array and matrix indexes}
Using a onedimensional array is also the correct way to dynamically allocate memory for a matrix. The first idea of using an array of array of ArbFloat
will not work because this does not allocate a single memory block. Instead, individual memory blocks will be allocated for the inner array (rows), and these pointers will be stored in the outer array  this way of storing 2D data is not compatible with the requirements of NumLib.
Here is a simple example how to create, populate and read a matrix dynamically
 [math] A = \left[ \begin{array}{ccc} 1 & 2 & 3 \\ 4 & 5 & 6 \end{array} \right] [/math]
var A: array of Arbfloat; // Note: the index in a dynamic array is 0based. ij: Integer; i, j: Integer; p: ^ArbFloat; m, n: Integer; begin m := 2; n := 3; SetLength(A, m, n); A[0] := 1; A[1] := 2; A[2] := 3; A[3] := 4; A[4] := 5; A[5] := 6; for i := 0 to m1 do begin for j := 0 to n1 do begin ij := i * n + j; Write(A[ij]); end; WriteLn; end; // or p := @A[0]; // pointer to first array element for i:=0 to m  1 do begin for j := 0 to n  1 do begin WriteLn(p^); inc(p); // advance pointer to next array element end; WriteLn; end;
Symmetric matrices
The elements of a symmetric matrix are mirrored at the main diagonal, i.e. a_{ij} = a_{ji}. In other words: a symmetric matrix is equal to its transpose: A = A^{T}.
NumLib contains some routine optimized for such matrices. They require the matrix being stored like a generic matrix in a rectangular m x n array or a linear m*n array. However, only the half of the matrix below the diagonal must be populated (but it can be, of course).
Symmetric positive definite matrices
A matrix A is positive definite if the product d^{T} A d is a positive number for any nonzero vector d. A matrix is symmetric positive definite if, additionally, A^{T} = A.
This type of matrices has some interesting properties (determinant is never 0, eigenvalues are real and positive). Therefore NumLib offers specialized routines for many matrix problems with symmetric positive matrices which are superior to those for general matrices.
The matrix is stored in the conventional way like a rectangular 2D array of m rows and n columns or a linear 1D array with m*n elements.
Band matrices
A n x n band matrix has zero elements everywhere except for a band along the main diagonal characterized by a left and right bandwidth (l and r, respectively).
The NumLib procedures for band matrices assume that the matrix stores only the elements of the band. It is expected the the matrix is passed as a 1D array. Starting at the top/left corner point of the matrix (element A_{11}) the diagonal elements are collected by running along the rows of the matrix, from left to right and from top to bottom. In total, there will be n (l+1+r)  (r(r+1) + l(l+1)) div 2 elements. The calling procedure must allocate a 1D array of at least this size for the diagonal elements. Note that a band matrix cannot be passed as a 2D array.
As an example, suppose this 7 x 7 matrix with left bandwidth 2 and right bandwidth 1:
[math] A = \begin{bmatrix} A_{11} & A_{12} & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ A_{21} & A_{22} & A_{23} & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ A_{31} & A_{32} & A_{33} & A_{34} & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & A_{42} & A_{43} & A_{44} & A_{45} & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & A_{53} & A_{54} & A_{55} & A_{56} & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & A_{64} & A_{65} & A_{66} & A_{67} \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & A_{75} & A_{76} & A_{77} \end{bmatrix} [/math]
The 1D data array to be passed to the NumLib routines consists of these elements
const arr: array[1..24] of ArbFloat = ( A11, A22, A21, A22, A23, A31, A32, A33, A34, A42, A43, A44, A45, A53, A54, A55, A56, A64, A65, A66, A67, A75, A76, A77 );
Symmetric band matrices
In a symmetric matrix, the matrix elements can be mirrored at the main diagonal of the matrix, i.e. A_{ij} = A_{ji}. All elements out side a band of width w to the left and right of the main diagonal are zero.
Like with a generic band matrix, NumLib assumes that the only the elements of the diagonals are passed as a 1D array to the procedures dedicated to this matrix type. Since in a symmetric band matrix the left and right band widths are equal it is assumed that only the left band and the main diagonal are stored. Again the relevant diagonal elements are collected by running across the rows of the matrix from left to right and from top to bottom, stopping in each row at the main diagonal. In total, there will be n (w+1)  w(w+1) div 2 elements in the data array.
As an example consider this 7 x 7 symmetric band matrix with band width 2:
[math] A = \begin{bmatrix} A_{11} & A_{21} & A_{31} & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ A_{21} & A_{22} & A_{32} & A_{42} & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ A_{31} & A_{32} & A_{33} & A_{43} & A_{53} & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & A_{42} & A_{43} & A_{44} & A_{54} & A_{64} & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & A_{53} & A_{54} & A_{55} & A_{65} & A_{75} \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & A_{64} & A_{65} & A_{66} & A_{76} \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & A_{75} & A_{76} & A_{77} \end{bmatrix} [/math]
The 1D array for the NumLib procedures is
const arr: array[1..18] of ArbFloat = ( A11, A21, A22, A31, A32, A33, A42, A43, A44, A53, A54, A55, A64, A65, A66, A75, A76, A77 );
Tridiagonal matrices
A tridiagonal matrix has zero elements everywhere except for the main diagonal and the diagonal immediately above and below it. This way the matrix can be stored more efficiently than a generic matrix because all the empty elements can be dropped. The elements of an n x n square tridiagonal matrix can be stored as three vectors
 an array
l
withn1
elements for the subdiagonal  an array
d
withn
elements for the main diagonal, and  an array
u
withn1
elements for the superdiagonal
 [math] A= \begin{bmatrix} d[0] & u[0] & & \dots & 0 \\ l[1] & d[1] & u[1] & & \\ & l[2] & d[2] & u[2] & \\ \vdots & & \ddots & \ddots & \ddots \\ & & l[n1] & d[n1] & u[n1] \\ 0 & & & l[n] & d[n] \end{bmatrix} [/math]
Symmetric tridiagonal matrices
In these tridiagonal matrices, the subdiagonal and superdiagonal elements are equal. Consequently, NumLib requests only two, instead of three, onedimensional arrays:
 an array
d
withn
elements for the main diagonal, and  an array
c
withn1
elements for the superdiagonal and subdiagonal
 [math] A= \begin{bmatrix} d[0] & c[1] & & \dots & 0 \\ c[1] & d[1] & c[2] & & \\ & c[2] & d[2] & c[3] & \\ \vdots & & \ddots & \ddots & \ddots \\ & & c[n1] & d[n1] & c[n] \\ 0 & & & c[n] & d[n] \end{bmatrix} [/math]
Complex numbers
NumLib defines the type complex
as a Turbo Pascal object
. Real and imaginary parts are denoted as xreal
and imag
, respectively. Methods for basic operations are provided:
type complex = object xreal, imag : ArbFloat; procedure Init(r, i: ArbFloat); // Initializes the number with real and imaginary parts r and i, resp procedure Add(c: complex); // Adds another complex number procedure Sub(c: complex); // Subtracts a complex number function Inp(z:complex):ArbFloat; // Calculates the inner product (a.Re * b.Re + a.Im * b.Im) procedure Conjugate; // Conjugates the value (i.e. negates the imaginary part) procedure Scale(s: ArbFloat); // Multiplies real and imaginary part by the real value s function Norm: ArbFloat; // Calculates the "norm", i.e. sqr(Re) + sqr(Im) function Size: ArbFloat; // Size = sqrt(Norm) function Re: ArbFloat; // Returns the real part of the complex number procedure Unary; // Negates real and imaginary parts function Im: ArbFloat; // Returns the imaginary part of the complex number function Arg: ArbFloat; // Calculates the phase phi of the complex number z = x + y i = r exp(i phi) procedure MinC(c: complex); // Converts itself to the minimum of real and imaginary parts of itself and another value, c procedure MaxC(c: complex); // Converts itself to the maximum of real and imaginary ports of itself and another value, c procedure TransF(var t: complex); end;
The real and imaginary parts of a complex number can also be retrieved by these standalone functions:
function Re(c: complex): ArbFloat; function Im(c: complex): ArbFloat;
Basic operations with matrices and vectors (unit omv)
Inner product of two vectors
The result of the inner product of two vectors a = [a_{1}, a_{2}, ... a_{n}] and b = [b_{1}, b_{2}, ... b_{n}] (also called "dot product" or "scalar product") is a scalar, i.e. a single number. It is calculated as the sum of the elementbyelement products of the vectors. Both vectors must have the same lengths.
 [math]\mathbf{a} \cdot \mathbf{b} = \sum_{i=1}^n a_i b_i = a_1 b_1 + a_2 b_2 + \dots + a_n b_n[/math]
NumLib provides the function omvinp
for calculation of the inner product:
function omvinp(var a, b: ArbFloat; n: ArbInt): ArbFloat;

a
andb
are the first elements of 1dimensional arrays representing the vectors a and b, respectively. 
n
defines the dimension of the vectors (count of array elements). Both vectors must have the same number of elements.
Example
Calculate the dot product of the vectors a = [0, 1, 2, 2, 1] and b = [3, 1, 2, 2, 1].
program dot_product; uses typ, omv; const n = 5; a: array[0..n1] of ArbFloat = (0, 1, 2, 2, 1); b: array[0..n1] of Arbfloat = (3, 1, 2, 2, 1); var ab: ArbFloat; i: Integer; begin ab := omvinp(a[0], b[0], n); Write('Vector a = ['); for i:= Low(a) to High(a) do Write(a[i]:5:0); WriteLn(' ]'); Write('Vector b = ['); for i:= Low(b) to High(b) do Write(b[i]:5:0); WriteLn(' ]'); Write('Dot product a b = '); WriteLn(ab:0:0); end.
Product of two matrices
The product of a m x n matrix A and a n x p matrix B is a m x p matrix C in which the elements are calculated as the inner product of the row vectors of A and the column vectors of B (see here for more details):
 [math]C_{ij} = \sum_{k=0}^n A_{ik} B_{kj}[/math]
The NumLib function to perform this multipication is omvmmm
("mmm" = multiply matrix by matrix):
procedure omvmmm(var a: ArbFloat; m, n, rwa: ArbInt; var b: ArbFloat; p, rwb: ArbInt; var c: ArbFloat; rwc: ArbInt);

a
is the first element of the first input matrix A. The array will not be changed.
m
specifies the number of rows (or: column length) of matrix A. 
n
specifies the number or columns (or: row length) of matrix A. 
rwa
is the allocated row length of matrix A. This means that the array can be allocated larger than actually needed. Of course,rwa
cannot be smaller thann
.


b
is the first element of the second input matrix B. Again, this array will not be changed.
p
specifies the number or columns (or: row length) of matrix B. The number of rows is already defined by the number of columns of matrix A,n
. 
rwb
is the allocated row length of matrix B.rwb
cannot be smaller thanp
.


c
is the first element of the output matrix C. After the calculation, this and the following array elements will contain the elements of the product matrix. The size of the output matrix is
m
rows xp
columns as set up by the input matrices A and B. 
rwc
is the allocated row length of matrix C.rwc
cannot be smaller thanp
.
 The size of the output matrix is
Example
Calculate the product of the matrices
 [math] A = \begin{bmatrix} 3 & \ 5 & 4 & 1 & 4 \\ 2 & \ 3 & 4 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & \ 1 & 1 & 2 & 5 \end{bmatrix} \ \ \ \ \ B = \begin{bmatrix} 3 & 4 & 2 & 0 \\ 0 & 2 & 2 & 1 \\ 1 & 0 & 3 & 4 \\ 2 & 3 & 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 3 & 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix} [/math]
program matrix_multiplication; uses typ, omv; const m = 3; n = 5; p = 4; A: array[1..m, 1..n] of ArbFloat = ( ( 3, 5, 4, 1, 4), (2, 3, 4, 1, 0), ( 0, 1, 1, 2, 5) ); B: array[1..n, 1..p] of ArbFloat = ( ( 3, 4, 2, 0), ( 0, 2, 2, 1), (1, 0, 3, 4), (2, 3, 0, 1), ( 1, 3, 0, 1) ); var C: array[1..m, 1..p] of ArbFloat; i, j: Integer; begin // Calculate product omvmmm( A[1,1], m, n, n, B[1,1], p, p, C[1,1], p ); // Print A WriteLn('A = '); for i:= 1 to m do begin for j := 1 to n do Write(A[i, j]:10:0); WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Print B WriteLn('B = '); for i:= 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to p do Write(B[i, j]:10:0); WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Print C WriteLn('C = A B = '); for i:= 1 to m do begin for j := 1 to p do Write(C[i, j]:10:0); WriteLn; end; end.
Product of a matrix with a vector
A matrix A of size m x n multiplied with a vector b of length n yields another vector of length m. The elements of the result vector c are the dot products of the matrix rows with b. Note that the length of vector b must be equal to the number of columns of matrix A.
 [math]\begin{align*} \mathbf{c} = A\ \mathbf{b}= \left[ \begin{array}{cccc} a_{11} & a_{12} & a_{13} & \ldots & a_{1n}\\ a_{21} & a_{22} & a_{23} & \ldots & a_{2n}\\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots\\ a_{m1} & a_{m2} & a_{m3} & \ldots & a_{mn} \end{array} \right] \ \ \left[ \begin{array}{c} b_1\\ b_2\\ b_3\\ \vdots\\ b_n \end{array} \right] = \left[ \begin{array}{c} a_{11}b_1+a_{12}b_2 + a_{13}b_3 + \cdots + a_{1n} b_n\\ a_{21}b_1+a_{22}b_2 + a_{23}b_3 + \cdots + a_{2n} b_n\\ \vdots\\ a_{m1}b_1+a_{m2}b_2 + a_{m3}b_3 + \cdots + a_{mn} b_n\\ \end{array} \right]. \end{align*}[/math]
NumLib's procedure for this task is called omvmmv
("mmv" = multiply a matrix with a vector):
procedure omvmmv(var a: ArbFloat; m, n, rwidth: ArbInt; var b, c: ArbFloat);
Example
Calculate the product
 [math]\begin{align*} \mathbf{c} = A\ \mathbf{b}= \left[ \begin{array}{cccc} 3 & 5 & 4 & 1 & 4\\ 2 & 3 & 4 & 1 & 0\\ 0 & 1 & 1 & 2 & 5 \end{array} \right] \ \ \left[ \begin{array}{c} 3\\ 0\\ 1\\ 2\\ 1 \end{array} \right] \end{align*}[/math]
program matrix_vector_multiplication; uses typ, omv; const m = 3; n = 5; p = 4; A: array[1..m, 1..n] of ArbFloat = ( ( 3, 5, 4, 1, 4), (2, 3, 4, 1, 0), ( 0, 1, 1, 2, 5) ); b: array[1..n] of ArbFloat = ( 3, 0, 1, 2, 1 ); var c: array[1..m] of ArbFloat; i, j: Integer; begin // Calculate product c = A b omvmmv( A[1,1], m, n, n, b[1], c[1] ); // Print A WriteLn('A = '); for i:= 1 to m do begin for j := 1 to n do Write(A[i, j]:10:0); WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Print vector b WriteLn('b = '); for i:= 1 to n do Write(b[i]:10:0); WriteLn; WriteLn; // Print result vector c WriteLn('c = A b = '); for i:= 1 to m do Write(c[i]:10:0); WriteLn; end.
Transpose matrix
The transpose matrix A^{T} of matrix A is obtained by flipping rows and columns:
 [math]\begin{align*} {A} = \left[ \begin{array}{cccc} a_{11} & a_{12} & a_{13} & \ldots & a_{1n}\\ a_{21} & a_{22} & a_{23} & \ldots & a_{2n}\\ \vdots & \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots\\ a_{m1} & a_{m2} & a_{m3} & \ldots & a_{mn} \end{array} \right] \ \ \ {A^T} = \left[ \begin{array}{cccc} a_{11} & a_{21} & \ldots & a_{m1}\\ a_{12} & a_{22} & \ldots & a_{m2}\\ a_{13} & a_{23} & \ldots & a_{m3} \\ \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ a_{1n} & a_{2n} & \ldots & a{mn} \end{array} \right] \end{align*}[/math]
Use the procedure omvtrm
to perform this operation with NumLib:
procedure omvtrm( var a: ArbFloat; m, n, rwa: ArbInt; var c: ArbFloat; rwc: ArbInt );

a
denotes the first element of the input matrix A. The elements of this array are not changed by the procedure.
m
is the number of rows of matrix A. 
n
is the number of columns of matrix A. 
rwa
is the number of allocated columns of A. This way the array of A can be larger than acutally needed.


c
is the first element of the transposed matrix A^{T}. It hasn
rows andm
columns.
rwc
is the number of allocated columns for the transposed matrix.

Example
Obtain the transpose of the 2x4 matrix
 [math]{A} = \left[ \begin{array}{cccc} 1 & 2 & 3 & 4 \\ 11 & 22 & 33 & 44 \end{array} \right] [/math]
program transpose; uses typ, omv; const m = 2; n = 4; A: array[1..m, 1..n] of ArbFloat = ( ( 1, 2, 3, 4), (11, 22, 33, 44) ); var C: array[1..n, 1..m] of ArbFloat; i, j: Integer; begin // Transpose A omvtrm( A[1,1], m, n, n, C[1,1], m ); // Print A WriteLn('A = '); for i:= 1 to m do begin for j := 1 to n do Write(A[i, j]:10:0); WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Print C WriteLn('AT = '); for i:= 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to m do Write(C[i, j]:10:0); WriteLn; end; end.
Norm of vectors and matrices
A norm is a function which assigns a positive "length" to a vector a or a matrix M.
In case of vectors, NumLib supports these norms:
 The 1norm of a vector is defined as the sum of the absolute values of the vector components. It is also called "Taxicab" or "Manhattan" norm because it corresponds to the distance that a taxis has to drive in a rectangular grid of streets.
 [math]\a\_1 = \sum_{i=1}^n {a_i}[/math]
 The 2norm (also: Euclidian norm) corresponds to the distance of point a from the origin.
 [math]\a\_2 = \sqrt{\sum_{i=1}^n {a_i}^2} [/math]
 The maximum infinite norm of a vector is the maximum absolute value of its components.
 [math]\a\_\infty = \max({a_1}, {a_2}, ... {a_n})[/math]
The norms of matrices, as implemented by NumLib, are usually defined by row or column vectors:
 The 1norm of a matrix is the maximum of the absolute column sums:
 [math]\M\_1 = \max_{1 \le j \le {n}} \sum_{i=1}^mM_{ij}[/math]
 The maximum infinite norm of a matrix is the maximum of the absolute row sum.
 [math]\M\_\infty = \max_{1 \le i \le\ m} \sum_{j=1}^n M_{ij} [/math]
 Only the Frobenius norm is calculated by individual matrix elements. It corresponds to the 2norm of vectors, only the sum runs over all matrix elements:
 [math]\M\_F = \sqrt{\sum_{i=1}^m \sum_{j=1}^n {M_{ij}}^2} [/math]
These are the NumLib procedure for calculation of norms:
function omvn1v(var a: ArbFloat; n: ArbInt): ArbFloat; // 1norm of a vector function omvn1m(var a: ArbFloat; m, n, rwidth: ArbInt): ArbFloat; // 1norm of a matrix function omvn2v(var a: ArbFloat; n: ArbInt): ArbFloat; // 2norm of a vector function omvnfm(Var a: ArbFloat; m, n, rwidth: ArbInt): ArbFloat; // Frobenius norm of a matrix function omvnmv(var a: ArbFloat; n: ArbInt): ArbFloat; // Maximum infinite norm of a vector function omvnmm(var a: ArbFloat; m, n, rwidth: ArbInt): ArbFloat; // Maximum infinite norm of a matrix

a
is the first element of the vector or matrix of which the norm is to be calculated 
m
, in case of a matrix norm, is the number of matrix rows. 
n
is the number of vector elements in case of a vector norm, or the number of columns in case of a matrix norm. 
rwidth
, in case of a matrix norm, is the allocated count of columns. This way a larger matrix can be allocated than actually needed.
Example
program norm; uses typ, omv; const n = 2; m = 4; a: array[0..m1] of ArbFloat = (0, 1, 2, 3); b: array[0..m1, 0..n1] of Arbfloat = ((3, 1), (2, 2), (0, 1), (2, 1)); var i, j: Integer; begin Write('Vector a = ['); for i:= Low(a) to High(a) do Write(a[i]:5:0); WriteLn(' ]'); WriteLn(' 1norm of vector a: ', omvn1v(a[0], m):0:3); WriteLn(' 2norm of vector a: ', omvn2v(a[0], m):0:3); WriteLn(' maximum norm of vector a: ', omvnmv(a[0], m):0:3); WriteLn; WriteLn('Matrix b = '); for i:= 0 to m1 do begin for j := 0 to n1 do Write(b[i,j]:5:0); WriteLn; end; WriteLn(' 1norm of matrix b: ', omvn1m(b[0, 0], m, n, n):0:3); WriteLn('Forbenius norm of matrix b: ', omvnfm(b[0, 0], m, n, n):0:3); WriteLn(' maximum norm of matrix b: ', omvnmm(b[0, 0], m, n, n):0:3); ReadLn; end.
Determinant of a matrix (unit det)
Unit det provides a series of routines for calculation of the determinant of a square matrix. Besides a procedure for general matrices there are also routines optimized for special matrix types (tridiagonal, symmetric).
In order to avoid possible overflows and underflows a factor may be split off during calculation, and the determinant is returned as a floating point number f times a multiplier 8^{k}. In many cases, however, k = 0, and the determinant simply is equal to f.
Determinant of a standard matrix
The term "standard matrix" means here a matrix with is stored in the standard NumLib storage as described here, i.e. the matrix is stored as a 2D or 1D array of real numbers. The 2D array has at least n rows and n columns, the 1D array is dimensioned to contain at least '^{2} elements.
Without making any assumptions on the properties of the matrix the determinant can be calculated by the procedure detgen
. More efficient algorithms can be used, however, if the matrix has these particular properties:
 symmetric matrix > use procedure
detgsy
.  symmetric positive definite matrix > use procedure
getgpd
.
procedure detgen(n, rwidth: ArbInt; var a, f: ArbFloat; var k, term: ArbInt); // > generic matrix procedure detgsy(n, rwidth: ArbInt; var a, f: ArbFloat; var k, term: ArbInt); // > symmetric matrix procedure detgpd(n, rwidth: ArbInt; var a, f: ArbFloat; var k, term: ArbInt); // > symmetric positive definite matrix

n
determines the number of rows and columns of the input matrix (it must be square matrix). 
rwidth
specifies the allocated row length of the input matrix. This takes care of the fact that matrices can be allocated larger than actually needed. 
a
is the first (i.e. top/left) element of the input matrix. The entire matrix must be contained within the same allocated memory block. 
f
andk
return the determinant of the matrix. The determinant is given by f * 8^{k}. Usually k = 0, and the determinant simply is equal to f.
Example
Calculate the determinant of the 4x4 matrix
 [math] A= \left[ \begin{array}{rrrr} 4 & 2 & 4 & 1 \\ 30 & 20 & 45 & 12 \\ 20 & 15 & 36 & 10 \\ 35 & 28 & 70 & 20 \end{array} \right][/math]
The matrix is positive definite because all elements are positive and the product b^{T} A b cannot become zero or negative for any nonzero vector b. While the routine detgpd
is the best for this matrix type the code below contains also commentedout calls to the other routines.
program determinant_spd_matrix; // "spd" = symmetric positive definite uses math, typ, det; const n = 4; const a: array[1..n, 1..n] of ArbFloat = ( ( 5, 7, 6, 5), ( 7, 10, 8, 7), ( 6, 8, 10, 9), ( 5, 7, 9, 10) ); var f: ArbFloat; k: Integer; term: Integer = 0; i, j: Integer; begin // write input matrix WriteLn('A = '); for i := 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to n do Write(a[i, j]:10:0); WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Calculate determinant of symmetric positive definite matrix detgpd(n, n, a[1, 1], f, k, term); // or uncomment to use one of the other methods // detgen(n, n, a[1, 1], f, k, term); // detgsy(n, n, a[1, 1], f, k, term); if term = 1 then WriteLn('Determinant of A = ', f * intpower(8, k):0:9, ' (k = ', k, ')') else WriteLn('Incorrect input'); end.
Determinant of a band matrix
If a matrix has the shape of a band matrix then its determinant is best calculated by using the procedure detgba
procedure detgba(n, l, r: ArbInt; var a, f: ArbFloat; var k, term:ArbInt);

n
denotes the number of columns and rows of the matrix (it must be square). 
l
identifies the left bandwidth, i.e. how many diagonals the band extends to the left, or below, the main diagonal. 
r
identifies the right bandwidth, i.e. how many diagons the band extends to the right, or above, the main diagonsl. 
a
specifies the first element of a 1D array which contains the elements of the diagonal band, see this. This array contains only the band elements and is obtained by running across the rows of the band matrix from left to right and top to bottom, starting at element A_{11}. It must be dimensioned to contain at leastn*(l+1+r)  (r*(r+1)+l*(l+1)) div 2
elements. 
f
andk
return the determinant of the matrix. The determinant is given by f * 8^{k}. Usually k = 0, and the determinant simply is equal to f.
Example
Calculate the determinant of the 5x5 band matrix with left bandwidth l = 2 and right bandwidth r = 1
 [math] A = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 2 & 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 3 & 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 1 & 1 \end{bmatrix}[/math]
program determinant_band_matrix; uses math, typ, det; const n = 5; L = 2; R = 1; nelements = n*(L+1+R)  (R*(R+1) + L*(L+1)) div 2; const // Diagonal elements arranged in rows, elements outside of the band omitted! a: array[1..nelements] of Arbfloat = ( 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 3, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 ); var f: ArbFloat; term: Integer = 0; i, i1, i2, j, k: Integer; begin // Write diagonal elements WriteLn('n = ', n); Writeln('Left band width L = ', L); WriteLn('Right band width R = ', R); Write('Diagonal elements of A = ', a[1]:0:0); for k := 2 to nelements do Write(a[k]:5:0); WriteLn; WriteLn; // write reconstructed band input matrix (not needed for calculation) WriteLn('Reconstructed A = '); k := 1; for j := 1 to n do begin i1 := j  L; i2 := i1 + L + R; for i:=1 to i11 do Write(0.0:5:0); for i := i1 to i2 do if (i >= 1) and (i <= n) then begin Write(a[k]:5:0); inc(k); end; for i:= i2 + 1 to n do if i <= n then Write(0.0:5:0); WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Calculate determinant detgba(n, l, r, a[1], f, k, term); if term = 1 then WriteLn('Determinant of A = ', f * intpower(8, k):0:9, ' (k = ', k, ')') else WriteLn('Incorrect input'); end.
Determinant of a symmetric positive definite band matrix
If a matrix has the shape of a band matrix and is symmetric positive definite then detgpb
is the dedicated routine for calculation of its determinant.
procedure detgpb(n, w: ArbInt; var a, f: ArbFloat; var k, term:ArbInt);

n
denotes the number of columns and rows of the matrix (it must be square). 
w
identifies the bandwidth, i.e. how many diagonals the band extends to the left or to the right of the main diagonal. Left and right bandwidth must be equal. 
a
specifies the first element of a 1D array which contains the elements of the diagonal band, see this. This array contains only the left band elements and the elements of the main diagonal. It is obtained by running across the rows of the band matrix from left to right and top to bottom, but stopping at the main diagonal  the right band is ignored since it is equal to the left band. The array must be dimensioned to contain at leastn*(w+1)  (w*(w+1)) div 2
elements. 
f
andk
return the determinant of the matrix. The determinant is given by f * 8^{k}. Usually k = 0, and the determinant simply is equal to f.
Example
Calculate the determinant of the 7x7 symmetric band matrix with bandwidth w = 2 [math] A= \begin{bmatrix} 5 & 4 & 1 & & & & \\ 4 & 6 & 4 & 1 & & & \\ 1 & 4 & 6 & 4 & 1 & & \\ & 1 & 4 & 6 & 4 & 1 & \\ & & 1 & 4 & 6 & 4 & 1 \\ & & & 1 & 4 & 6 & 4 \\ & & & & 1 & 4 & 5 \end{bmatrix} [/math]
program determinant_spd_band_matrix; // "spd" = symmetric positive definite uses math, typ, det; const n = 7; w = 2; nelements = n * (w + 1)  (w * (w + 1)) div 2; const // Band elements arragned in rows, elements outside of the band omitted! a: array[1..nelements] of Arbfloat = ( 5, 4, 6, 1, 4, 6, 1, 4, 6, 1, 4, 6, 1, 4, 6, 1, 4, 5 ); function MatrixIndexToArrayIndex(i, j, n, w: Integer): Integer; function DiagElementIndex(i: Integer): Integer; var k: Integer; begin Result := 1; if i = 1 then exit; // Rows truncated at left for k := 2 to w do begin Result := Result + k; if k = i then exit; end; // full rows and those truncated at right for k := w+1 to n do begin Result := Result + w + 1; if k = i then exit; end; Result := n; end; var d: Integer; begin if j > i then begin Result := MatrixIndexToArrayIndex(j, i, n, w); exit; end; Result := DiagElementIndex(i); if (i = j) then exit; d := i  j; if d > w then Result := 1 else begin dec(Result, d); if (Result < 1) then Result := 1 end; end; var i, j, k: Integer; f: ArbFloat; term: Integer = 0; begin // Write diagonal elements WriteLn('n = ', n); Writeln('(Onesided) band width W = ', w); Write('Diagonal elements of A = ', a[1]:0:0); for k := 2 to nelements do Write(a[k]:3:0); WriteLn; WriteLn; // write reconstructed band input matrix (not needed for calculation) WriteLn('Reconstructed A = '); k := 1; for i := 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to n do begin k := MatrixIndexToArrayIndex(i, j, n, w); if k = 1 then Write(0.0:3:0) else Write(a[k]:3:0); end; WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Calculate determinant detgpb(n, w, a[1], f, k, term); if term = 1 then WriteLn('Determinant of A = ', f * intpower(8, k):0:9, ' (k = ', k, ')') else WriteLn('Incorrect input'); end.
Determinant of a tridiagonal matrix
Calculation of the determinant of a tridiagonal matrix is done by the procedure detgtr
:
procedure detgtr(n: ArbInt; var l, d, u, f: ArbFloat; var k, term:ArbInt);

n
denotes the number of columns and rows of the matrix (it must be square). 
l
specifies the first element in the subdiagonal of the matrix. This 1D array must be dimensioned to at leastn1
elements. 
d
specifies the first element along the main diagonal of the matrix. This 1D array must be dimensioned to contain at leastn
elements. 
u
specifies the first element along the superdiagonal of the matrix. The array must be dimensioned to have at leastn1
elements. 
f
andk
return the determinant of the matrix. The determinant is given by f * 8^{k}. Usually k = 0, and the determinant simply is equal to f.
Example
Calculate the determinant of the matrix
 [math] A= \left( \begin{array}{rrrr} 1 & 1 & & \\ 2 & 1 & 1 & \\ & 1 & 1 & 0 \\ & & 1 & 2 \end{array} \right) [/math]
program determinant_tridiagonal_matrix; {$mode objfpc}{$H+} uses math, typ, det; const n = 4; const u: array[0..n2] of ArbFloat = (1, 1, 1 ); // superdiagonal d: array[0..n1] of ArbFloat = ( 2, 2, 2, 2); // main diagonal l: array[1..n1] of ArbFloat = ( 1, 1, 1); // subdiagonal var f: ArbFloat; k: Integer; term: Integer = 0; i, j: Integer; begin // write input matrix WriteLn('A = '); for i := 0 to n1 do begin for j := 0 to i2 do Write(0.0:5:0); if i > 0 then Write(l[i]:5:0); Write(d[i]:5:0); if i < n1 then Write(u[i]:5:0); for j:=i+2 to n1 do Write(0.0:5:0); WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Calculate determinant detgtr(n, l[1], d[0], u[0], f, k, term); if term = 1 then WriteLn('Determinant of A = ', f * intpower(8, k):0:9, ' (k = ', k, ')') else WriteLn('Incorrect input'); ReadLn; end.
Inverse of a matrix (unit inv)
Suppose a square matrix A. Then the matrix A^{1} is the inverse of A if the product A^{1} A is the identity matrix I (all elements zero, except for the diagonal elements which are 1).
The inverse matrix exists if the determinant of A is not zero.
 [math] A^{1} A = I = \begin{bmatrix} 1 & & 0 \\ & \ddots & \\ 0 & & 1 \end{bmatrix} [/math]
NumLib provides various routines for calculation of the inverse matrix. Which algorithm is used depends on the properties of the matrix A. All routines discussed here have in common that the matrix is stored in the standard NumLib way, i.e. as a 2D array of real numbers with n rows and m columns, or as a 1D array with n m elements.
No special requirements are made for the matrix passed to invgen
, except that it is square. The calculation in this routine is based on LU decomposition with partial pivoting. If the matrix is symmetric, it can be processed by invgsy
which uses a reduction to tridiagonal form internally. A symmetric positive definite matrix can be passed to invgpd
where the inverse is calculated by Cholesky decomposition.
procedure invgen(n, rwidth: ArbInt; var ai: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // > generic matrix procedure invgsy(n, rwidth: ArbInt; var ai: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // > symmetric matrix procedure invgpd(n, rwidth: ArbInt; var ai: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // > symmetric positive definite matrix

n
indicates the size of the matrix. 
rwidth
is length of the rows of the twodimensional array which holds the matrix. Normallyn = rwidth
, but the matrix could have been declared larger than actually needed; in this caserwidth
refers to the declared size of the data array. 
ai
is the first (topleft) element of the matrix in the data array. After the calculation the input data are overwritten by the elements of the inverse matrix in case of successful completion (term = 1
); in other cases, the matrix elements are undefined. 
term
provides an error code: 1  successful completion, the elements of the inverse matrix can be found at the same place as the input matrix.
 2  the inverse could not be calculated because the input matrix is (almost) singular.
 3  incorrect input data,
n < 1
.
Example
Calculate the inverse of the symmetric matrix
[math]A =
\left[
\begin{array}{rrrr}
5 & 7 & 6 & 5 \\
7 & 10 & 8 & 7 \\
6 & 8 & 10 & 9 \\
5 & 7 & 9 & 10
\end{array}
\right]
[/math]
This matrix is symmetric and positive definite (the product b^{T} A b with any vector b = [b_{1}, b_{2}, b_{3}]^{T} cannot become zero or negative since all elements of this matrix are positive). Therefore, invgpd
is bestsuited for this task although the other routines can be used as well (uncomment their calls below).
program inverse_matrix; uses typ, inv, omv; const n = 4; D = 5; var // a is the input matrix to be inverted // Note that this is matrix must be symmetric positive definite. a: array[1..n, 1..n] of ArbFloat = ( (5, 7, 6, 5), (7, 10, 8, 7), (6, 8, 10, 9), (5, 7, 9, 10) ); b: array[1..n, 1..n] of Arbfloat; c: array[1..n, 1..n] of ArbFloat; term: Integer = 0; i, j: Integer; begin // write input matrix WriteLn('a = '); for i := 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to n do Write(a[i, j]:10:D); WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Store input matrix because it will be overwritten by the inverse of a for i := 1 to n do for j := 1 to n do b[i, j] := a[i, j]; // Calculate inverse  uncomment the procedure to be used. //invgen(n, n, a[1, 1], term); //invgsy(n, n, a[1, 1], term); invgpd(n, n, a[1, 1], term); // write inverse WriteLn('a^(1) = '); for i := 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to n do Write(a[i, j]:10:D); WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Check validity of result by multiplying inverse with saved input matrix omvmmm(a[1, 1], n, n, n, b[1, 1], n, n, c[1, 1], n); // write inverse WriteLn('a^(1) x a = '); for i := 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to n do Write(c[i, j]:10:D); WriteLn; end; end.
Solving systems of linear equations (unit sle)
A system of linear equations (or linear system) is a collection of two or more linear equations involving the same set of variables, x_{1} ... x_{n}.
 [math] \begin{cases} a_{11} x_1 + a_{12} x_2 + \dots + a_{1n} x_n = b_1 \\ a_{21} x_1 + a_{22} x_2 + \dots + a_{2n} x_n = b_n \\ \ \ \ \vdots \\ a_{m1} x_1 + a_{m2} x_2 + \dots + a_{mn} x_n = b_m \end{cases} [/math]
In order to find a solution which satisfies all equations simultaneously the system of equations is usually converted to a matrix equation A x = b, where
 [math] A = \left [ \begin{array}{ccc} a_{11} & a_{12} & \dots & a_{1n} \\ a_{21} & a_{22} & \dots & a_{2n} \\ \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ a_{m1} & a_{m2} & \dots & a_{mn} \end{array} \right ], \ \mathbf{x} = \left [ \begin{array}{c} x_1 \\ x_2 \\ \vdots \\ x_n \end{array} \right ], \ \mathbf{b} = \left [ \begin{array}{c} b_1 \\ b_2 \\ \vdots \\ b_m \end{array} \right ] [/math]
NumLib offers several procedures to solve the matrix equation depending on the properties of the matrix.
Square matrices with standard storage
Here we describe several routines in which the matrix of the equation system is square, i.e. there are as many equations as unknowns. This matrix is assumed to be passed to the procedures in the standard NumLib way as the first element of a 2D or 1D array. The 2D array must be dimensioned to contain at least n rows and n columns, the 1D array must contain at least n^{2} elements.
The most general procedure is slegen
and applied to any square matrix A. The system is solved using the Gauss elimination procedure with partial pivoting.
If the matrix A is symmetric then the reduction to tridiagonal form generally is more stable. This is done in routine slegsy
.
If A, furthermore, is a symmetric positive definite matrix, then the Cholesky method is bestsuited. This is applied in routine slegpd
.
procedure slegen(n, rwidth: ArbInt; var a, b, x, ca: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // generic matrix procedure slegsy(n, rwidth: ArbInt; var a, b, x, ca: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // symmetric matrix procedure slegpd(n, rwidth: ArbInt; var a, b, x, ca: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // symmetric positive definite matrix

n
is the number of unknown variables. It must be the same as the number of columns and rows of the coefficent matrix. 
rwidth
identifies the allocated number of columns of the coefficient matrix. This is useful if the matrix is allocated larger than needed. It is required thatn <= rwidth
. 
a
is the first (i.e. top left) element of the coefficient matrix A; the other elements must follow within the same allocated memory block. The matrix will not be changed during the calculation. 
b
is the first element of the array containing the constant vector b. The array length at least must be equal ton
. The vector will not be changed during the calculation. 
x
is the first element of the array to receive the solution vector x. It must be allocated to contain at leastn
values. 
ca
is a parameter to describe the accuracy of the solution. 
term
returns an error code: 1  successful completion, the solution vector x is valid
 2  the solution could not have been determined because the matrix is (almost) singular.
 3  error in input values:
n < 1
.
Example
Solve this system of linear equations:
 [math] \begin{cases} 5 x_1 + 7 x_2 + 6 x_3 + 5 x_4 = 57 \\ 7 x_1 + 10 x_2 + 8 x_3 + 7 x_4 = 79 \\ 6 x_1 + 8 x_2 + 10 x_3 + 9 x_4 = 88 \\ 5 x_1 + 7 x_2 + 9 x_3 + 10 x_4 = 86 \end{cases} \qquad \Rightarrow \qquad A= \left[ \begin{array}{rrrr} 5 & 7 & 6 & 5 \\ 7 & 10 & 8 & 7 \\ 6 & 8 & 10 & 9 \\ 5 & 7 & 9 & 10 \end{array} \right] , \; \mathbf{b} = \left[ \begin{array}{r} 57 \\ 79 \\ 88 \\ 86 \end{array} \right] [/math]
This matrix is symmetric positive definite. Therefore, all routines presented here can be applied. Uncomment the requested line in the code below. As a test the result vector x is multiplied to matrix A, and the result must equal the constant vector b.
program solve_sys_lin_eq; uses typ, sle, omv; const n = 4; A: array[1..n, 1..n] of ArbFloat = ( ( 5, 7, 6, 5), ( 7, 10, 8, 7), ( 6, 8, 10, 9), ( 5, 7, 9, 10) ); b: array[1..n] of ArbFloat = ( 57, 79, 88, 86 ); var x: array[1..n] of ArbFloat; b_test: array[1..n] of ArbFloat; ca: ArbFloat; i, j: Integer; term: Integer; begin WriteLn('Solve matrix system A x = b'); WriteLn; // Print A WriteLn('Matrix A = '); for i:= 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to n do Write(A[i, j]:10:0); WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Print b WriteLn('Vector b = '); for i:= 1 to n do Write(b[i]:10:0); WriteLn; WriteLn; // Solve  select one of these methods slegen(n, n, A[1, 1], b[1], x[1], ca, term); // slegsy(n, n, A[1, 1], b[1], x[1], ca, term); // slegpd(n, n, A[1, 1], b[1], x[1], ca, term); if term = 1 then begin WriteLn('Solution vector x = '); for i:= 1 to n do Write(x[i]:10:0); WriteLn; WriteLn; omvmmv(A[1,1], n, n, n, x[1], b_test[1]); WriteLn('Check result: A x = (must be equal to b)'); for i:= 1 to n do Write(b_test[i]:10:0); WriteLn; end else WriteLn('Error'); ReadLn; end.
Band matrix
A special solution, slegba
, is implemented for a band matrix, i.e. a matrix in which all elements are zero outside a band of width l below and of width r above the main diagonal.
procedure slegba(n, l, r: ArbInt; var a, b, x, ca: ArbFloat; var term:ArbInt);

n
denotes the number of columns and rows of the matrix (it must be square). 
l
identifies the left bandwidth, i.e. the number of diagonals the band extends below (or to the left of) the main diagonal. 
r
identifies the right bandwidth, i.e. the number of diagonals the band extends abofe (or to the right of) the main diagonsl. 
a
specifies the first element of a 1D array which contains the elements of the diagonal band, see this. This array contains only the band elements and is obtained by running across the rows of the band matrix from left to right and top to bottom, starting at element A_{11}. It must be dimensioned to contain at leastn*(l+1+r)  (r*(r+1)+l*(l+1)) div 2
elements. Note that a 2D array cannot be used for this routine. 
b
is the first element of the array containing the constant vector b. The array length at least must be equal ton
. The vector will not be changed during the calculation. 
x
is the first element of the array to receive the solution vector x. It must be allocated to contain at leastn
values. 
ca
is a parameter to describe the accuracy of the solution. 
term
returns an error code: 1  successful completion, the solution vector x is valid
 2  the solution could not have been determined because the matrix is (almost) singular.
 3  error in input values:
n < 1
,l < 0
,l >= n
,r < 0
, orr >= n
Example
Solve this system of linear equations:
 [math] \begin{array}{ccccccc} 5 x_1 &  & 4 x_2 & + & x_3 & & & & & & & & & = 0 \\ 4 x_1 & + & 6 x_2 &  & 4 x_3 & + & x_4 & & & & & & & = 0 \\ x_1 &  & 4 x_2 & + & 6 x_3 &  & 4 x_4 & & & & & & & = 0 \\ & & x_2 &  & 4 x_3 & + & 6 x_4 &  & 4 x_5 & & & & & = 1 \\ & & & & x_3 &  & 4 x_4 & + & 6 x_5 &  & 4 x_6 & + & x_7 & = 0 \\ & & & & & & x_4 &  & 4 x_5 & + & 6 x_6 &  & 4 x_7 & = 0 \\ & & & & & & & & x_5 &  & 4 x_6 & + & 5 x_7 & = 0 \\ \end{array} \qquad \Rightarrow \qquad A= \left[ \begin{array}{rrrr} 5 & 4 & 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 4 & 6 & 4 & 1 & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 4 & 6 & 4 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 4 & 6 & 4 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 4 & 6 & 4 & 1 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 & 4 & 6 & 4 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 & 4 & 5 \end{array} \right] , \; \mathbf{b} = \left[ \begin{array}{r} 0 \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ 1 \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{array} \right] [/math]
program solve_band; uses typ, sle, omv; const n = 7; L = 2; R = 2; nelements = n * (L + 1 + R)  (L * (L + 1) + R * (R + 1)) div 2; // Band elements arranged in rows, elements outside of the band omitted! a: array[1..nelements] of Arbfloat = ( 5, 4, 1, 4, 6, 4, 1, 1, 4, 6, 4, 1, 1, 4, 6, 4, 1, 1, 4, 6, 4, 1, 1, 4, 6, 4, 1, 4, 5 ); b: array[1..n] of ArbFloat = ( 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 ); var x: array[1..n] of ArbFloat; a_test: array[1..n, 1..n] of ArbFloat; b_test: array[1..n] of ArbFloat; ca: ArbFloat; i, j, k: Integer; term: Integer; begin WriteLn('Solve matrix system A x = b where A is a band matrix'); WriteLn; // Write diagonal elements WriteLn('Matrix A:'); WriteLn(' n = ', n); Writeln(' Left band width L = ', L); WriteLn(' Right band width R = ', R); WriteLn(' Diagonal elements of A = '); for k := 1 to nelements do Write(a[k]:5:0); WriteLn; WriteLn; // Solve slegba(n, l, r, A[1], b[1], x[1], ca, term); if term = 1 then begin // To test the result we multiply A with the solution vector x and check // whether the result is equal to b. // Since mutliplication of a matrix stored like a band matrix is quite // cumbersome we copy the band matrix into a standard matrix. FillChar(a_test, SizeOf(a_test), 0); k := 1; for i:=1 to L do for j := iL to i+R do if (j >= 1) and (j <= n) then begin a_test[i,j] := A[k]; inc(k); end; for i:= L+1 to nR do for j := iL to i+R do begin a_test[i,j] := A[k]; inc(k); end; for i := nR+1 to n do for j := iL to i+R do if j <= n then begin a_test[i,j] := A[k]; inc(k); end; // Print A WriteLn('Matrix A ='); for i:=1 to n do begin for j:=1 to n do Write(a_test[i,j]:5:0); WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Print b WriteLn('Vector b = '); for i:= 1 to n do Write(b[i]:10:0); WriteLn; WriteLn; // Print solution WriteLn('Solution vector x = '); for i:= 1 to n do Write(x[i]:10:3); WriteLn; WriteLn; omvmmv(a_test[1,1], n, n, n, x[1], b_test[1]); WriteLn('Check result: A x = (must be equal to b)'); for i:= 1 to n do Write(b_test[i]:10:0); WriteLn; end else WriteLn('Error'); end.
Symmetric positive definite band matrix
The optimized solution method for a symmetric positive band matrix is called slegpb
.
procedure slegpb(n, w: ArbInt; var a, b, x, ca: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt);

n
denotes the number of columns and rows of the matrix (it must be square). 
w
identifies the (onesided) bandwidth, i.e. the number of diagonals the band extends below (or to the left of) the main diagonal. This is the same value as the number of diagonals the band extends above (or to the right of) the main diagonsl. 
a
specifies the first element of a 1D array which contains the elements of the diagonal band, see this. This array contains only the band elements and is obtained by running across the rows of the band matrix from left to right and top to bottom, starting at element A_{11}, but stopping at the main diagonal. This means that the array contains only the left band and the main diagonal elements. It must be dimensioned to contain at leastn*(w+1)  (w*(w+1)) div 2
elements. Note that a 2D array cannot be used for this routine. 
b
is the first element of the array containing the constant vector b. The array length at least must be equal ton
. The vector will not be changed during the calculation. 
x
is the first element of the array to receive the solution vector x. It must be allocated to contain at leastn
values. Ifterm
is not 1 then the solution array contains undefined data. 
ca
is a parameter to describe the accuracy of the solution. 
term
returns an error code: 1  successful completion, the solution vector x is valid
 2  the solution could not have been determined because the matrix is (almost) singular.
 3  error in input values:
n<1
,w<0
, orw>=n
Example
The matrix of the band matrix example is symmetrical positive definite. Therefore, procedure slegpb
can be applied as well:
program solve_spd; // "spd" = symmetric positive definite uses typ, sle, omv; const n = 7; w = 2; nelements = n * (w + 1)  (w * (w + 1)) div 2; // Band elements arranged in rows, elements outside of the band as well as right diagonals omitted! a: array[1..nelements] of Arbfloat = ( 5, 4, 6, 1, 4, 6, 1, 4, 6, 1, 4, 6, 1, 4, 6, 1, 4, 5 ); b: array[1..n] of ArbFloat = ( 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 ); var x: array[1..n] of ArbFloat; a_test: array[1..n, 1..n] of ArbFloat; b_test: array[1..n] of ArbFloat; ca: ArbFloat; i, j, k: Integer; term: Integer; begin WriteLn('Solve matrix system A x = b where A is a symmetric positive definite band matrix'); WriteLn; // Write diagonal elements WriteLn('Matrix A:'); WriteLn(' n = ', n); Writeln(' (Onesided) band width w = ', w); WriteLn(' Diagonal elements of A = '); for k := 1 to nelements do Write(a[k]:5:0); WriteLn; WriteLn; // Solve slegpb(n, w, A[1], b[1], x[1], ca, term); if term = 1 then begin // To test the result we multiply A with the solution vector x and check // whether the result is equal to b. // Since mutliplication of a matrix stored like a band matrix is quite // cumbersome we copy the band matrix into a standard matrix. FillChar(a_test, SizeOf(a_test), 0); i := 1; k := 1; while (k <= nelements) and (i <= n) do begin for j := i  w to i do if (j >= 1) and (j <= n) then begin a_test[i, j] := a[k]; a_test[j, i] := a[k]; inc(k); end; inc(i); end; // Print A WriteLn('Matrix A ='); for i:=1 to n do begin for j:=1 to n do Write(a_test[i,j]:5:0); WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Print b WriteLn('Vector b = '); for i:= 1 to n do Write(b[i]:10:0); WriteLn; WriteLn; // Print solution WriteLn('Solution vector x = '); for i:= 1 to n do Write(x[i]:10:3); WriteLn; WriteLn; omvmmv(a_test[1,1], n, n, n, x[1], b_test[1]); WriteLn('Check result: A x = (must be equal to b)'); for i:= 1 to n do Write(b_test[i]:10:3); WriteLn; end else WriteLn('Error'); end.
Tridiagonal matrix
NumLib offers two specialized procedures for solving a system of linear equations based on a tridiagonal matrix A. Both rely on the memoryoptimized storage of tridiagonal matrices as described here. They differ in the internal calculation algorithm and in the behavior with critical matrices.
procedure sledtr(n: ArbInt; var l, d, u, b, x: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); procedure slegtr(n: ArbInt; var l, d, u, b, x, ca: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt);

n
is the number of unknown variables. It must be the same as the number of columns and rows of the coefficent matrix. 
l
specifies the first element in the subdiagonal of the matrix A. This 1D array must be dimensioned to at leastn1
elements. 
d
specifies the first element along the main diagonal of the matrix A. This 1D array must be dimensioned to contain at leastn
elements. 
u
specifies the first element along the superdiagonal of the matrix A. The array must be dimensioned to have at leastn1
elements. 
b
is the first element of the array containing the constant vector b. The array length at least must be equal ton
. The vector will not be changed during the calculation. 
x
is the first element of the array to receive the solution vector x. It must be allocated to contain at leastn
values. 
ca
is a parameter to describe the accuracy of the solution. 
term
returns an error code: 1  successful completion, the solution vector x is valid
 2  the solution could not have been determined because the matrix is (almost) singular.
 3  error in input values:
n < 1
.
sledtr
is numerically stable if matrix A fulfills one of these conditions:
 A is regular (i.e. its inverse matrix exists), and A is columnardiagonally dominant; this means:
 d_{1} ≥ l_{2},
 d_{i} ≥ u_{i1} + l_{i}+1, i = 2, ..., n1,
 d_{n} ≥ u_{n1}
 A is regular, and A is diagonally dominant; this means:
 d_{1} ≥ l_{2},
 d_{i} ≥ u_{i} + l_{i}, i = 2, ..., n1,
 d_{n} ≥ u_{n}
 A is symmetric and positivedefinite.
However, this procedure does not provide the parameter ca
from which the accuracy of the determined solution can be evaluated. If this is needed the (less stable) procedure slegtr
must be used.
Example
Solve this tridiagonal system of linear equations for n = 8:
 [math] \begin{cases} 188 x_1  100 x_2 = 0 \\ 100 x_1 + 188 x_2 100 x_3 = 0 \\ \vdots \\ 100 x_{n2} + 188 x_{n1}  100 x_n = 0 \\ 100 x_{n1} + 188 x_n = 0 \end{cases} \qquad \Rightarrow \qquad A= \left[ \begin{array}{rrrrr} 188 & 100 & & & 0 \\ 100 & 188 & 100 & & \\ & \ddots & \ddots & \ddots & \\ & & 100 & 188 & 100 \\ & & & 100 & 188 \\ \end{array} \right] , \; \mathbf{b} = \left[ \begin{array}{r} 88 \\ 12 \\ \vdots \\ 12 \\ 88 \end{array} \right] [/math]
program solve_tridiag; uses typ, sle; const n = 8; u: array[1..n1] of ArbFloat = (100, 100, 100, 100, 100, 100, 100 ); d: array[1..n] of ArbFloat = ( 188, 188, 188, 188, 188, 188, 188, 188); l: array[2..n] of ArbFloat = ( 100, 100, 100, 100, 100, 100, 100); b: array[1..n] of ArbFloat = ( 88, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 12, 88); var A: array[1..n, 1..n] of ArbFloat; x: array[1..n] of ArbFloat; b_test: array[1..n] of ArbFloat; ca: ArbFloat; i, j: Integer; term: Integer; begin WriteLn('Solve tridiagonal matrix system A x = b'); WriteLn; Write('Superdiagonal of A:':25); for i := 1 to n1 do Write(u[i]:10:0); WriteLn; Write('Main diagonal of A:':25); for i:= 1 to n do Write(d[i]:10:0); WriteLn; Write('Subdiagonal of A:':25); Write('':10); for i:=2 to n do Write(l[i]:10:0); WriteLn; Write('Vector b:':25); for i:=1 to n do Write(b[i]:10:0); WriteLn; // Solve slegtr(n, l[2], d[1], u[1], b[1], x[1], ca, term); { or: sledtr(n, l[2], d[1], u[1], b[1], x[1], term); } if term = 1 then begin Write('Solution vector x:':25); for i:= 1 to n do Write(x[i]:10:0); WriteLn; // Multiply A with x to test the result // NumLib does not have a routine to multiply a tridiagonal matrix with a // vector... Let's do it manually. b_test[1] := d[1]*x[1] + u[1]*x[2]; for i := 2 to n1 do b_test[i] := l[i]*x[i1] + d[i]*x[i] + u[i]*x[i+1]; b_test[n] := l[n]*x[n1] + d[n]*x[n]; Write('Check b = A x:':25); for i:= 1 to n do Write(b_test[i]:10:0); WriteLn; end else WriteLn('Error'); end.
Overdetermined systems (least squares)
Unlike the other routines in unit sle which require a square matrix A, slegls
can solve linear systems described by a rectangular matrix which has more rows than colums, or speaking in terms of equations, has more equations than unknowns. Such a system generally is not solvable exactly. But an approximate solution can be found such that the sum of squared residuals of each equation, i.e. the norm
[math]\\mathbf{b}  A \mathbf{x}\_2[/math]
is as small as possible. The most prominent application of this technique is fitting of equations to data (regression analysis).
procedure slegls(var a: ArbFloat; m, n, rwidtha: ArbInt; var b, x: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt);

a
is the first (i.e. top left) element of an array with the coefficient matrix A; the other elements must follow within the same allocated memory block. The array will not be changed during the calculation. 
m
is the number of rows of the matrix A (or: the number of equations). 
n
is the number of columns of the matrix A (or: the number of unknown variables). n must not be larger than m. 
rwidth
identifies the allocated number of columns of the coefficient matrix A. This is useful if the matrix is allocated larger than needed. It is required thatn <= rwidth
. 
b
is the first element of the array containing the constant vector b. The array length must correspond to the number of matrix rowsm
, but the array can be allocated to be larger. 
x
is the first element of the array to receive the solution vector x. The array length must correspond to the number of matrix columnsn
, but the array can be allocated to be larger. 
term
returns an error code: 1  successful completion, the solution vector x is valid
 2  there is no unambiguous solution because the columns of the matrix are linearly dependant..
 3  error in input values:
n < 1
, orn
>m
.
The method is based on reduction of the array A to upper triangle shape through Householder transformations.
Example
Find the leastsquares solution for the system A x = b of 4 equations and 3 unknowns with
[math] A= \left( \begin{array}{rrr} 1 & 0 & 1 \\ 1 & 1 & 1 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & 0 \end{array} \right), \ \ b= \left( \begin{array}{r} 21 \\ 39 \\ 21 \\ 30 \end{array} \right). [/math]
program solve_leastsquares; uses typ, sle, omv; const m = 4; n = 3; A: array[1..m, 1..n] of ArbFloat = ( (1, 0, 1), (1, 1, 1), (0, 1, 0), (1, 1, 0) ); b: array[1..m] of ArbFloat = ( 21, 39, 21, 30); var x: array[1..n] of ArbFloat; term: ArbInt; i, j: Integer; b_test: array[1..m] of ArbFloat; sum: ArbFloat; begin WriteLn('Solve A x = b with the leastsquares method'); WriteLn; // Display input data WriteLn('A = '); for i := 1 to m do begin for j := 1 to n do Write(A[i, j]:10:0); WriteLn; end; WriteLn; WriteLn('b = '); for i := 1 to m do Write(b[i]:10:0); WriteLn; // Calculate and show solution slegls(a[1,1], m, n, n, b[1], x[1], term); WriteLn; WriteLn('Solution x = '); for j:= 1 to n do Write(x[j]:10:0); WriteLn; // Calculate and display residuals WriteLn; WriteLn('Residuals A x  b = '); sum := 0; omvmmv(a[1,1], m, n, n, x[1], b_test[1]); for i:=1 to m do begin Write((b_test[i]  b[i]):10:0); sum := sum + sqr(b_test[i]  b[i]); end; WriteLn; // Sum of squared residuals WriteLn; WriteLn('Sum of squared residuals'); WriteLn(sum:10:0); WriteLn; WriteLn(''); WriteLn; // Modify solution to show that the sum of squared residuals increases'; WriteLn('Modified solution x'' (to show that it has a larger sum of squared residuals)'); x[1] := x[1] + 1; x[2] := x[2]  1; WriteLn; for j:=1 to n do Write(x[j]:10:0); omvmmv(a[1,1], m, n, n, x[1], b_test[1]); sum := 0; for i:=1 to m do sum := sum + sqr(b_test[i]  b[i]); WriteLn; WriteLn; WriteLn('Sum of squared residuals'); WriteLn(sum:10:0); end.
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors (unit eig)
A vector is an eigenvector if it does not change its direction after a linear transformation has been applied to it. In matrix terms: if a nonzero vector x of dimension n is multiplied to a square nxn matrix A and the product is the same vector multiplied by a scalar λ then x is an eigenvector, and λ is called an eigenvalue:
 [math] A \mathbf{x} = \lambda \mathbf{x} \qquad \Rightarrow \qquad A \mathbf{x}  \lambda \mathbf{x} = 0 [/math]
NumLib offers a variety of routines for calculation of eigenvectors and eigenvalues. They are optimized for the matrix type. Every matrix type will be supported by two or four procedures of various degree of complexity; they are identified by appended numbers 1 and 2, or 1 to 4:
 The procedures with appended 1 calculate all eigenvalues.
 The procedures with the appended 2 do the same but only for some eigenvalues which have an index in a specified range (λ_{k1}...λ_{k2} out of λ_{1}...λ_{n}).
 The procedures with the appended 3 calculate all eigenvalues and all eigenvectors.
 The procedures with the appended 4 do the same, but again return only some eigenvalues and eigenvectors having an index in the specified interval.
Matrices with general storage
The routines discussed here assume that the n x n matrix for which the eigenvalues are to be calculated is stored in the conventional way as a 2D (or 1D) array of ArbFloat
values.
The NumLib method for determining the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a generic matrix are called eigge1
and eigge3
("ge" = "generic"). Optimized calculation schemes exists for generic symmetric matrices and symmetric positive definite matrices; the corresponding routines are called eiggs1
, eiggs2
, eiggs3
, and eiggs4
for generic symmetric matrices ("gs" = "generic symmetric")., and eiggg1
, eiggg2
, eiggg3
, eiggg4
for symmetric positive definite matrices ("gg" = ??)
// Generic matrix (without any special symmetries) procedure eigge1(var a: ArbFloat; n, rwidth: ArbInt; var lam: complex; var term: ArbInt); // all eigenvalues procedure eigge3(var a: ArbFloat; n, rwidtha: ArbInt; var lam, x: complex; rwidthx: ArbInt; var term: ArbInt); // all eigenvalues and eigenvectors // Generic symmetric matrix procedure eiggs1(var a: ArbFloat; n, rwidth: ArbInt; var lam: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // all eigenvalues procedure eiggs2(var a: ArbFloat; n, rwidth, k1, k2: ArbInt; var lam: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // some eigenvalues (index k1..k2) procedure eiggs3(var a: ArbFloat; n, rwidtha: ArbInt; var lam, x: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // all eigenvalues and eigenvectors procedure eiggs4(var a: ArbFloat; n, rwidtha, k1, k2: ArbInt; var lam, x: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // some eigenvalues and eigenvectors (index k1..k2) // Symmetric positive definite matrix procedure eiggg1(var a: ArbFloat; n, rwidth: ArbInt; var lam: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // all eigenvalues procedure eiggg2(var a: ArbFloat; n, rwidth, k1, k2: ArbInt; var lam: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // some eigenvalues (index k1..k2) procedure eiggg3(var a: ArbFloat; n, rwidtha: ArbInt; var lam, x: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // all eigenvalues and eigenvectors procedure eiggg4(var a: ArbFloat; n, rwidtha, k1, k2: ArbInt; var lam, x: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // some eigenvalues and eigenvectors (index k1..k2)

a
is the first element of an array containing the matrix A for which the eigenvalue/eigenvector has to be calculated. The array must be dimensioned to provide space for at least n^{2} floating point values. 
n
specifies the size of the matrix A, i.e. the number of rows or columns. Note that the input matrix must be square, i.e. the number of rows and columns is equal. 
rwidth
is the allocated row length of the arraya
. It can be larger than n if the array is allocated larger than necessary, but normallyrwidth = n
. 
lam
is the first element of an array receiving the calculated eigenvalues. In case of a generic matrix (eigge1
,eigge2
) the eigenvalues can be complex; therefore, the array must be dimensioned for values of typecomplex
as declared in unit typ. In the other cases (eiggs1..4
oreiggg1..4
) the eigenvalues are real, and the array must be dimensioned for datatypeArbFloat
. Since a nxn matrix has n eigenvalues the array must be allocated for at leastn
values, in case of the procedures with appended 2 or 4 onlyk2k1+1
values are sufficient (see below). 
term
returns an error code: 1  successful calculation
 2  calculation failed
 3  error in input data:
n<1
,k1<1
,k1>k2
, ork2>n
.
Additionally, in case of procedure eigge3
, eigge4
, eiggg3
or eiggg4
:

x
is the first element of a matrix to receive the calculated eigenvectors. Again, the eigenvectors of a generic matrix can have complex components. Therefore, the matrix must be declared for the datatypecomplex
, and it must be large enough to hold at least n^{2} values, in case ofeigge4
oreiggg4
n * (k2k1+1)
. If the matrix is symmetric or positive definite, the eigenvectors are real, and the array must be declared for datatypeArbFloat
. In any case, the eigenvectors are normalized to unit length and arranged in the columns of this matrix. 
rwidthx
denotes the allocated row length of the matrixx
. Thus it is possible to dimension the result matrix larger than actually needed.
Additionally, in case of procedures eiggs2
, eiggs4
, eiggg2
and eiggg4
:

k1
andk2
define the interval of indexes k for which the eigenvalues (λ_{k}) and eigenvalues (c_{k}) are to be calculated. They are integers and must be ordered such that1<=k1<=k2<=n
.
Example
Calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix
 [math] A= \begin{bmatrix} 8 & 1 & 5 \\ 4 & 4 & 2 \\ 18 & 5 & 7 \end{bmatrix} [/math]
program eig_general_matrix; uses SysUtils, math, typ, eig; const n = 3; D = 3; var // a is the input matrix a: array[1..n, 1..n] of ArbFloat = ( ( 8, 1, 5), (4, 4, 2), (18, 5, 7) ); lambda: array[1..n] of complex; x: array[1..n, 1..n] of complex; term: Integer = 0; i, j: Integer; function ComplexToStr(z: complex; Decimals: Integer): String; var sgn: array[boolean] of string = ('+', ''); begin Result := Format('%.*f %s %.*fi', [Decimals, z.Re, sgn[z.Im < 0], Decimals, abs(z.Im)]); end; begin // write input matrix WriteLn('a = '); for i := 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to n do Write(a[i, j]:10:D); WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Calculate eigenvalues/vectors eigge3(a[1,1], n, n, lambda[1], x[1,1], n, term); // write eigenvalues WriteLn('Eigenvalues: lambda = '); for i := 1 to n do Write(ComplexToStr(lambda[i], D):25); WriteLn; WriteLn; // Write eigenvectors WriteLn('Eigenvectors (as columns): x = '); for i := 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to n do Write(ComplexToStr(x[i, j], D):25); WriteLn; end; end.
Symmetric band matrices
NumLib provides four routines to calculate eigenvalues and eigenvectors of symmetric band matrices: eigbs1
...eigbs4
("bs" = band and symmetric):
// All eigenvalues procedure eigbs1(var a: ArbFloat; n, w: ArbInt; var lam: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // Some eigenvalues (index k1..k2) procedure eigbs2(var a: ArbFloat; n, w, k1, k2: ArbInt; var lam: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // All eigenvalues and all eigenvectors procedure eigbs3(var a: ArbFloat; n, w: ArbInt; var lam, x: ArbFloat; rwidthx: ArbInt; var term: ArbInt); // Some eigenvalues, some eigenvectors (index k1..k2) procedure eigbs4(var a: ArbFloat; n, w, k1, k2: ArbInt; var lam, x: ArbFloat; rwidthx: ArbInt; var m2, term: ArbInt);

a
specifies the first element of a 1D array which contains the diagonal elements of the left band and the main diagonal. It is obtained by running across the rows of the band matrix from left to right and top to bottom, but stopping at the main diagonal  the right band is ignored since it is equal to the left band. The array must be dimensioned to contain at leastn
*(w
+1)  (w
*(w
+1)) div 2 elements. 
n
denotes the number of columns and rows of the matrix (it must be square). 
w
identifies the bandwidth, i.e. how many diagonals the band extends to the left or to the right of the main diagonal. Left and right bandwidth must be equal because the matrix is symmetric. 
lam
is the first element of a realvalued array receiving the calculated eigenvalues. The eigenvalues of a symmetric matric are real values. Since an n x n matrix has n eigenvalues the array must be allocated for at least nArbFloat
values. 
x
, in case of routineseigbs3
andeigbs4
, is the first element of a matrix to receive the calculated eigenvectors. The matrix must be declared for the datatypeArbfloat
, and it must be large enough to hold at least n x n values. The eigenvectors are normalized to unit length and are arranged in the columns of this matrix. 
rwidthx
, in case of routineseigbs3
andeigbs4
, denotes the allocated row length of the matrix x. Thus it is possible to dimension the result matrix larger than actually needed. 
k1
andk2
, in case of procedureseigbs2
andeigbs4
, define the interval of indexes k for which the eigenvalues λ_{k} and eigenvalues x_{k} are to be calculated. They are integers and must be ordered such that1<=k1<=k2<=n
. 
m2
, in case of routineeigbs4
, indicates the index of the largest eigenvalue for which an eigenvector has been calculated. 
term
returns an error code: 1  successful calculation
 2  calculation failed
 3  error in input parameters:
n<1
,w<0
,w>=n
,k1<1
,k1>k2
, ork2>n
.
If the bandwidth w > n/3
then it is better to calculate all eigenvalues and eigenvectors even if not all of them are needed.
Example
Calculate the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the symmetric 7 x 7 matrix [math] A= \begin{bmatrix} 5 & 4 & 1 & & & & 0 \\ 4 & 6 & 4 & 1 & & & \\ 1 & 4 & 6 & 4 & 1 & & \\ & 1 & 4 & 6 & 4 & 1 & \\ & & 1 & 4 & 6 & 4 & 1 \\ & & & 1 & 4 & 6 & 4 \\ 0 & & & & 1 & 4 & 5 \end{bmatrix} [/math] The eigenvalues are [math]\lambda_k = 16\sin^{4}\frac{k\pi}{16}, \qquad k=1,2,\ldots,7[/math]
program eig_symmband_matrix; uses SysUtils, math, typ, eig; const n = 7; w = 2; nelements = n * (w + 1)  (w * (w + 1)) div 2; D = 3; // a contains the elements of the left and main diagonals of the input matrix a: array[1..nelements] of ArbFloat = ( 5, 4, 6, 1, 4, 6, 1, 4, 6, 1, 4, 6, 1, 4, 6, 1, 4, 5 ); function MatrixIndexToArrayIndex(i, j, n, w: Integer): Integer; function DiagElementIndex(i: Integer): Integer; var k: Integer; begin Result := 1; if i = 1 then exit; // Rows truncated at left for k := 2 to w do begin Result := Result + k; if k = i then exit; end; // full rows and those truncated at right for k := w+1 to n do begin Result := Result + w + 1; if k = i then exit; end; Result := n; end; var d: Integer; begin if j > i then begin Result := MatrixIndexToArrayIndex(j, i, n, w); exit; end; Result := DiagElementIndex(i); if (i = j) then exit; d := i  j; if d > w then Result := 1 else begin dec(Result, d); if (Result < 1) then Result := 1 end; end; var lambda: array[1..n] of ArbFloat; x: array[1..n, 1..n] of ArbFloat; term: Integer = 0; i, j, k: Integer; begin // Write diagonal elements WriteLn('n = ', n); Writeln('(Onesided) band width w = ', w); Write('Diagonal elements of A = ', a[1]:0:0); for k := 2 to nelements do Write(a[k]:3:0); WriteLn; WriteLn; // write reconstructed band input matrix (not needed for calculation) WriteLn('Reconstructed A = '); k := 1; for i := 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to n do begin k := MatrixIndexToArrayIndex(i, j, n, w); if k = 1 then Write(0.0:3:0) else Write(a[k]:3:0); end; WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Calculate eigenvalues/vectors eigbs3(a[1], n, w, lambda[1], x[1,1], n, term); if term <> 1 then begin WriteLn('term = ', term, ' > ERROR'); halt; end; // Write expected results of eigenvalues WriteLn('Expected eigenvalues:'); for i := 1 to n do Write(16 * intpower(sin(i*pi/16), 4):15:D); WriteLn; WriteLn; // write eigenvalues WriteLn('Calculated eigenvalues: lambda = '); for i := 1 to n do Write(lambda[i]:15:D); WriteLn; WriteLn; // Write eigenvectors WriteLn('Eigenvectors (as columns): x = '); for i := 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to n do Write(x[i, j]:15:D); WriteLn; end; end.
Symmetric tridiagonal matrices
This type of matrices is treated best by the routines eigts1
..eigts4
:
// All eigenvalues procedure eigts1(var d, cd: ArbFloat; n: ArbInt; var lam: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // Some eigenvalues (with indices k1..k2) procedure eigts2(var d, cd: ArbFloat; n, k1, k2: ArbInt; var lam: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt); // All eigenvalues and all eigenvectors procedure eigts3(var d, cd: ArbFloat; n: ArbInt; var lam, x: ArbFloat; rwidth: ArbInt; var term: ArbInt); // Some eigenvalues and eigenvectors (with indices k1..k2) procedure eigts4(var d, cd: ArbFloat; n, k1, k2: ArbInt; var lam, x: ArbFloat; rwidth: ArbInt; var m2, term: ArbInt);

d
specifies the first element along the main diagonal of the matrix. This 1D array must be dimensioned to contain at leastn
elements. 
c
specifies the first element in the subdiagonal of the matrix. This 1D array must be dimensioned to at leastn1
elements. 
n
denotes the number of columns or rows of the matrix (it must be square). 
k1
andk2
define the interval of indexes k for which the eigenvalues (λ_{k}) and eigenvalues (c_{k}) are to be calculated. They are integers and must be ordered such that1<=k1<=k2<=n
. 
lam
is the first element of an array receiving the calculated eigenvalues. Since there are n real eigenvalues the array must be dimensioned to contain at least n values of typeArbFloat
. In case of the routines with appended 2 and 4, it is sufficient to provide space only fork2  k1 + 1
values. 
x
is the first element of an array to receive the calculated eigenvectors. Since the eigenvectors are real the array must be prepared for data typeArbFloat
. In case of routineeigts3
, the array must be dimensioned for at least n^{2} elements, in case of routineeigts4
it must provide space for at leastn * (k2k1+1)
values. The eigenvectors are normalized to unit length and arranged in the columns of this matrix. 
rwidthx
denotes the allocated row length of the matrixx
. Thus it is possible to dimension the result matrix larger than actually needed. 
term
returns an error code: 1  successful calculation
 2  calculation failed
 3  error in input data:
n<1
,k1<1
,k1>k2
, ork2>n
.
Example
Calculate eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix [math] A= \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 1 & 1 & 2 & 0 \\ 0 & 2 & 1 & 1 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 & 1 \end{bmatrix} [/math] The expected eigenvalues are [math] \sqrt{2},\ 2\sqrt{2},\ \sqrt{2},\ 2+\sqrt{2}[/math]
program eig_symmtridiag_matrix; uses typ, eig; const n = 4; // a contains the elements of the main diagonal of the input matrix d: array[1..n] of ArbFloat = (1, 1, 1, 1); // c contains the elements of the subdiagonal c: array[2..n] of ArbFloat = (1, 2, 1); var lambda: array[1..n] of ArbFloat; x: array[1..n, 1..n] of ArbFloat; term: Integer = 0; i, j, k: Integer; begin // Write diagonals elements WriteLn('n = ', n); Write('Elements of main diagonal = ', d[1]:0:0); for k := 2 to n do Write(d[k]:3:0); WriteLn; Write('Elements of subdiagonal = ', ' ':3, c[2]:0:0); for k := 3 to n do Write(c[k]:3:0); WriteLn; WriteLn; // write reconstructed band input matrix (not needed for calculation) WriteLn('Reconstructed A = '); for i := 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to n do begin if j = i then Write(d[i]:3:0) else if (j = i1) then Write(c[i]:3:0) else if (j = i+1) then Write(c[i+1]:3:0) else Write(0.0:3:0); end; WriteLn; end; WriteLn; // Calculate eigenvalues/vectors eigts3(d[1], c[2], n, lambda[1], x[1,1], n, term); if term <> 1 then begin WriteLn('term = ', term, ' > ERROR'); halt; end; // Write expected results of eigenvalues WriteLn('Expected eigenvalues:'); Write(sqrt(2):15:3, 2sqrt(2):15:3, sqrt(2):15:3, 2+sqrt(2):15:3); WriteLn; WriteLn; // write eigenvalues WriteLn('Calculated eigenvalues: lambda = '); for i := 1 to n do Write(lambda[i]:15:3); WriteLn; WriteLn; // Write eigenvectors WriteLn('Eigenvectors (as columns): x = '); for i := 1 to n do begin for j := 1 to n do Write(x[i, j]:15:3); WriteLn; end; end.
Finding the roots of a function (unit roo)
The roots are the x values at which a function f(x) is zero.
Roots of a polynomial
A polynomial of degree n
 [math] z^n + a_1 z^{n1} + a_2 z^{n2} + ... + a_{n1} z + a_n = 0[/math]
always has n, not necessarily distinct, complex solutions. The datatype complex
has been described in section complex numbers. These roots can be calculated by the function roopol
:
procedure roopol(var a: ArbFloat; n: ArbInt; var z: complex; var k, term: ArbInt);

a
is the first element of an array containing the polynomial coefficients. Note that it is assumed that the polynomial has been normalized such that the coefficient of the highestdegree term is 1; this coefficient is not contained in the array. Therefore, the array must be dimensioned for at least n values. Since only real polynomials are handled here the array elements must be of datatypeArbFloat
. The polynomial coefficients must be ordered from highest to lowest degree. Note that the data organization of the array is different from other polynomial routines in this library. 
n
is the degree of the polynomial. Must be a positive integer. 
z
is the first element in an array ofcomplex
values which returns the roots of the polynomial. The array must be dimensioned to contain at least n values. The returned values are undefined if an error had occurred (term
<> 1). 
k
returns how many roots were found. Always must be equal to n, otherwise an error has occured. 
term
returns an error code: 1  sucessful completion, the result array contains valid data.
 2  Not all roots could be detected, i.e.
k < n
.  3  Error in input data:
n < 1
.
Example
Calculate the roots of the polynomial z^{5} + 3 z^{4} + 4 z^{3}  8 z^{2}. The expected zero points are:
 [math] z_1=0,\ z_2=0,\ z_3=1,\ z_4=2+2i,\ z_5=22i[/math]
program polynomial; uses SysUtils, typ, roo; const n = 5; a: array[1..n] of ArbFloat = (3, 4, 8, 0, 0); var z: array[1..n] of complex; k: ArbInt; term: ArbInt; i: Integer; c: complex; function ComplexToStr(z: complex; Decimals: Integer): string; const SIGN: array[boolean] of string = ('+', ''); begin Result := Format('%.*f %s %.*f i', [Decimals, z.re, SIGN[z.im <0], Decimals, abs(z.im)]); end; begin // Solve equation roopol(a[1], n, z[1], k, term); if term = 1 then begin // Display results WriteLn('Results of procedure roopol:'); for i:=1 to n do WriteLn(' Solution #', i, ': ', ComplexToStr(z[i], 6):20); WriteLn; // Display expected results Writeln('Expected results:'); c.Init(0, 0); // z1 = 0 WriteLn(' Solution #1: ', complexToStr(c, 6):20); c.Init(0, 0); // z2 = 0 WriteLn(' Solution #2: ', complexToStr(c, 6):20); c.Init(1, 0); // z3 = 1 WriteLn(' Solution #3: ', complexToStr(c, 6):20); c.Init(2, +2); // z4 = 2 + 2 i WriteLn(' Solution #4: ', complexToStr(c, 6):20); c.Init(2, 2); // z4 = 2  2 i WriteLn(' Solution #5: ', complexToStr(c, 6):20); end else WriteLn('ERROR'); end.
Roots of the quadratic equation
The quadratic equation
 [math]{z}^2 + {p} {z} + {q} = 0[/math]
is a special polynomal of degree 2. It always has two, not necessarily different, complex roots. These solutions can be determined by the procedure rooqua
.
procedure rooqua(p, q: ArbFloat; var z1, z2: complex);

p
andq
are the (real) coefficients of the quadratic equation 
z1
andz2
return the two complex roots. See unit typ for the declaration of the typecomplex
Note that rooqua
assumes that the coefficient of the quadratic term has been normalized to be 1.
Example
Determine the roots of the equation z^{2} + 2 z + 5 = 0.
program quadratic_equ; uses SysUtils, typ, roo; var z1, z2: complex; const SIGN: array[boolean] of string = ('+', ''); begin rooqua(2, 5, z1, z2); WriteLn(Format('1st solution: %g %s %g i', [z1.re, SIGN[z1.im < 0], abs(z1.im)])); WriteLn(Format('2nd solution: %g %s %g i', [z2.re, SIGN[z2.im < 0], abs(z2.im)])); end.
Roots of the binomial equation
The equation
 [math]z^n = a[/math]
is another special polynomial in which all terms except for the highest and lowestorder terms have zero coefficients. It has n complex solutions which can be calculated by the procedure roobin
:
procedure roobin(n: ArbInt; a: complex; var z: complex; var term: ArbInt);

n
is the exponent in the binomial equation used. n must be a positive integer. 
a
is the constant term a at the right side of the binomial equation. It is expected to be a complex value (see section on complex numbers). 
z
is the first element of an array of data typecomplex
to receive the results of the procedure. It must be dimensioned for at least ncomplex
values. 
term
returns an error code: 1  successful termination
 2  error in input data:
n < 1
Example
Calculate the roots of the equation
 [math]z^4 = 1[/math]
The exact solutions are
 [math]z_1 = \frac{1}{2} \sqrt{2} (1+i) ,\ z_2 = \frac{1}{2} \sqrt{2} (1i) ,\ z_3= \frac{1}{2} \sqrt{2} (1+i) ,\ z_4= \frac{1}{2} \sqrt{2} (1i)[/math]
program binomial; uses SysUtils, typ, roo; const n = 4; var z: array[1..n] of complex; term: ArbInt; i: Integer; a: complex; c: complex; function ComplexToStr(z: complex; Decimals: Integer): string; const SIGN: array[boolean] of string = ('+', ''); begin Result := Format('%.*g %s %.*g i', [Decimals, z.re, SIGN[z.im < 0], Decimals, abs(z.im)]); end; begin // Prepare constant term as a complex value a.Init(1, 0); // Solve equation roobin(n, a, z[1], term); if term = 1 then begin // Display results WriteLn('Results of procedure roobin:'); for i:=1 to n do WriteLn(' Solution #', i, ': ', ComplexToStr(z[i], 6):20); WriteLn; // Display expected results Writeln('Expected results:'); c.Init(1, 1); c.Scale(0.5*sqrt(2)); WriteLn(' Solution #1: ', complexToStr(c, 6):20); c.Init(1, 1); c.Scale(0.5*sqrt(2)); WriteLn(' Solution #2: ', complexToStr(c, 6):20); c.Init(1, 1); c.Scale(0.5*sqrt(2)); WriteLn(' Solution #3: ', complexToStr(c, 6):20); c.Init(1, 1); c.Scale(0.5*sqrt(2)); WriteLn(' Solution #4: ', complexToStr(c, 6):20); end else WriteLn('ERROR'); end.
Bisection
In the bisection method two x values a and b are estimated to be around the expected root such that the function values have opposite signs at a and b. The center point of the interval is determined, and the subinterval for which the function has opposite signs at its endpoints is selected for a new iteration. The process ends when a given precision, i.e. interval length, is achieved.
In NumLib, this approach is supported by the procedure roof1r
:
procedure roof1r(f: rfunc1r; a, b, ae, re: ArbFloat; var x: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt);

f
is the function for which the root is to be determined. It must be a function of one floating point argument (typeArbFloat
). The type of the function,rfunc1r
, is declared in unittyp
. a
andb
are the endpoints of the test interval. The root must be located between these two values, i. e. the function values f(a) and f(b) must have different signs.ae
andre
determine the absolute and relative precision, respectively, with which the root will be determined.re
is relative to the maximum of abs(a) and abs(b). Note that precision and speed are conflicting issues. Highest accuracy is achieved ifae
is given asMachEps
(see unittyp
). Both parameters must not be negative.x
returns the value of the found root.term
returns whether the process has been successful: 1  successful termination, a zero point has been found with absolute accuracy
ae
or relative accuracyre
 2  the required accuracy of the root could not be reached; However, the value of x is called the "best achievable" approach
 3  error in input parameters:
ae
< 0 orre
< 0, or f(a)*f(b) > 0
 1  successful termination, a zero point has been found with absolute accuracy
Example
The following program determines the square root of 2. This is the x value at which the function f(x) = x^2  2 is zero. Since f(1) = 1^2  2 = 1 < 0 and f(2) = 2^2  2 = 2 > 0 we can assume a and b to be 1 and 2, respectively.
program bisection_demo; uses typ, roo; function f(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; begin Result := x*x  2; end; var x: ArbFloat = 0.0; term : ArbInt; begin roof1r(@f, 1.0, 2.0, 1e9, 0, x, term); WriteLn('Bisection result ', x); WriteLn('sqrt(2) ', sqrt(2.0)); end.
Roots of a system of nonlinear equations
Procedure roofnr
finds the roots of a system of (nonlinear) equations:
 [math] f_{i}(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n)=0, \; i=1,2,\ldots,n[/math]
procedure roofnr(f: roofnrfunc; n: ArbInt; var x, residu: ArbFloat; ra: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt);

f
contains the address of the procedure that calculates the function values f_{i}(x_{1}, x_{2}, ..., x_{n}). The type of the function,roofnrfunc
, is declared in unit typ to be
type roofnrfunc = procedure(var x, fx: ArbFloat; var deff: boolean);
 Here,
x
is the first element of an array of at least nArbFloat
values which provides the x_{j} values at which the functions are to be calculated. 
fx
is the first element of another array of nArbFloat
values to receive the result of each function f_{i}. Suppose, we want to solve the following system of equations
 Here,
 [math]\begin{array}{l}
f_1(x_1, x_2) = x_1^2 + x_2^2  2 = 0 \\
f_2(x_1, x_2) = (x_1  1)^2 + x_2 = 0
\end{array}
[/math]
 Then the function to be used as
f
can be written like this:
 Then the function to be used as
procedure func(var x1, f1x: real; var deff: boolean); var x: array[1..2] of real absolute x1; f: array[1..2] of real absolute f1x; begin f[1] := sqr(x[1]) + sqr(x[2])  2; f[2] := sqr(x[1]  1) + x[2]; end;
 The boolean parameter
deff
provides a way to stop the root finding process if some condition is met. The above example has two solutions, namely the intersection of a circle with a parabola. If only the intersection withx[1] >= 1
is requested then the process can be stopped as soon as a valuex[1] < 1
is reached by settingdeff
tofalse
:
 The boolean parameter
procedure func(var x1, f1x: real; var deff: boolean); far; var x: array[1..2] of real absolute x1; f: array[1..2] of real absolute f1x; begin deff := x[1] >= 1; if deff then begin f[1] := sqr(x[1]) + sqr(x[2])  2; f[2] := sqr(x[1]  1) + x[2]; end; end;
n
is the number of equations or independent x values (x_{i}) in the system. Both must be the same.x
is the first element of an array of at least nArbFloat
values which serves for both input and output. On input the array must contain estimates of the roots to be used as starting points of the iterative calculation. On output, the array is overwritten with the zero points found. Inspect the returned value ofterm
to decide whether the output array contains a valid solution.residu
is the 2norm of the vector of residuals in the calculated solution
 [math]\f\_2 = \sqrt{\Sigma_{i=1}^{n} f_i^2}[/math]
ra
contains the relative accuracy with which the desired solution is to be calculated. Recommended values: 10^{3}, 10^{5}, 10^{8} ifArbFloat
issingle
,real
, ordouble
.term
returns an error code: 1  successfull completion, a solution has been found with the desired accuracy
 2  the desired accuracy could not be reached, the returned values of x are the best ones achievable.
 3  Incorrect input data:
n < 0
, orre < 0
 4  The calculation process has been stopped because an internal limit for the count of function calls has been reached. Retry with other starting values for x.
 5  Not enough progess, there may be no solution at all. If the solution is close to 0 choose another starting value.
 6  The procedure wants to calculate a value outside the range defined by
deff
.
Example
Calculate a solutions of the equation system
 [math]\begin{array}{l} f_1(x_1, x_2) = x_1^2 + x_2^2  2 = 0 \\ f_2(x_1, x_2) = (x_1  1)^2 + x_2 = 0 \end{array} [/math]
program nonlinsystem; uses SysUtils, typ, roo; const n = 2; ra = 1e10; var x: array[1..n] of ArbFloat; f_check: array[1..n] of ArbFloat; residu: ArbFloat; i: Integer; term: Integer; deff: Boolean; procedure funcs(var x0, fx: ArbFloat; var deff: boolean); var xloc: array[1..n] of ArbFloat absolute x0; f: array[1..n] of ArbFloat absolute fx; x, y, z: ArbFloat; begin x := xloc[1]; y := xloc[2]; f[1] := sqr(x) + sqr(y)  2; f[2] := sqr(x  1) + y; end; begin // Initial guessed values x[1] := 0; x[2] := 0; // Solve equation roofnr(@funcs, n, x[1], residu, ra, term); WriteLn('term = ', term); WriteLn; if term in [1, 2] then begin // Display results WriteLn('Results found by procedure roofnr:'); for i:=1 to n do WriteLn('Solution #' + IntToStr(i)+': ':20, x[i]:0:6); WriteLn; WriteLn('Norm of residuals: ', residu:0:15); WriteLn; // Test functions: f(x[1], f_check[1], deff); WriteLn('Check if the function values really are 0 at the found roots:'); for i := 1 to n do WriteLn('Function #' + IntToStr(i) + ': ':20, f_check[i]:0:15); end else WriteLn('ERROR'); ReadLn; end.
Numerical integration of a function (unit int)
The NumLib function int1fr
calculates the integral of a given function between limits a
and b
with a specified absolute accuracy ae
:
procedure int1fr(f: rfunc1r; a, b, ae: ArbFloat; var integral, err: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt);

f
points to the function to be integrated. It must be a function of a single real variable (typeArbFloat
) and return anArbfloat
. See the typerfunc1r
declared in unit typ. 
a, b
are the limits of integration.a
and/orb
can attain the values+/Infinity
for integrating over an infinite interval. The order ofa
andb
is handled in the mathematically correct sense. 
ae
determines the absolute accuracy requested. 
integreal
returns the value of the integral. It is only valid ifterm = 1
. 
err
returns the achieved accuracy if the specified accuracy could not be reached.term
has the value 2 in this case. 
term
returns an error code: 1  successful termination, the integral could be calculated with absolute accuracy
ae
.  2  the requested accuracy could not be reached. But the integral is approximated within the accuracy
err
.  3  incorrect input data:
ae < 0
, ora = b = infinity
, ora = b = infinity
 4  the integral could not be calculated: divergence, or tooslow convergence.
 1  successful termination, the integral could be calculated with absolute accuracy
Example
Calculate the integral
 [math]\int_a^b \frac 1 {x^2} \mathrm{d}x[/math]
for several integration limits a
and b
. Since the function diverges at x = 0 the interval from a to b must not contain this point. The analytic result is [math]1/{b} + 1/{a}[/math]
program integrate; uses SysUtils, typ, int; function recipx2(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; begin Result := 1.0 / sqr(x); end; function integral_recipx2(a, b: ArbFloat): Arbfloat; begin if a = 0 then a := Infinity else if a = Infinity then a := 0.0 else a := 1/a; if b = 0 then b := Infinity else if b = Infinity then b := 0.0 else b := 1/b; Result := b  a; end; procedure Execute(a, b: ArbFloat); var err: ArbFloat = 0.0; term: ArbInt = 0; integral: ArbFloat = 0.0; begin try int1fr(@recipx2, a, b, 1e9, integral, err, term); except term := 4; end; Write(' The integral from ' + FloatToStr(a) + ' to ' + FloatToStr(b)); case term of 1: WriteLn(' is ', integral:0:9, ', exected: ', integral_recipx2(a, b):0:9); 2: WriteLn(' is ', integral:0:9, ', error: ', err:0:9, ', exected: ', integral_recipx2(a, b):0:9); 3: WriteLn(' cannot be calculated: Error in input data'); 4: WriteLn(' cannot be calculated: Divergent, or calculation converges too slowly.'); end; end; begin WriteLn('Integral of f(x) = 1/x^2'); Execute(1.0, 2.0); Execute(1.0, 1.0); Execute(2.0, 1.0); Execute(1.0, Infinity); Execute(Infinity, 1.0); Execute(0.0, Infinity); // NOTE: The next line will raise an exception if run in the IDE. This will not happen outside the IDE. // Integrate(1.0, Infinity); end.
Ordinary differential equations (unit ode)
Solving a single firstorder differential equation
The routine odeiv1
solves an initial value problem described by a firstorder differential equation of the form
[math]\begin{cases}
y' = f(x, y), \qquad x \in [a, b]\\
y(a) = \alpha
\end{cases}
[/math]
with given a, b, f and initial condition y(a) = α.
procedure odeiv1(f: rfunc2r; a, ya: ArbFloat; var b, yb: ArbFloat; ae: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt);

f
is the funtion to be processed. It depends on two real variables and returns a real value, as declared in unit typ astype rfunc2r = function(x, y: ArbFloat): ArbFloat
. 
a
is the x value of the starting point of the interval in which the solution is determined. 
ya
is the value α of the function at the starting point a (initial value). 
b
is the x value of the end point of the interval in which the solution is determined. The casea > b
is allowed. If, after the calculation, the error codeterm
is 2 then the interval has been changed, andb
contains the new endpoint to which the solution could be calculated with the desired accuracy,ae
. In all other cases,b
is unchanged. 
yb
returns the result of the calculation ifterm
< 3. It is the value of the function at the end point b of the interval. Ifterm = 3
then the result is undefined. 
ae
defines the absolute accuracy with which the value y(b) must be determined. 
term
returns an error code: 1  successful completion
 2  the solution could not reach the point b with the required accuracy. However,
yb
is a sufficiently accurate approximation of y at the deliveredb
.  3  input error:
ae <= 0
The algorithm is adaptive and is based on an explicit onestep RungeKutta method of order five.
The procedure is not suitable for a rigid differential comparison.
The accuracy can not be guaranteed in all cases. In socalled unstable problems, e.g. small variations in y(a) give large variations in y(b), the error may be significantly larger than what the result of the procedure suggests. Call the procedure with different values of ae
to investigate this case.
If one wants to solve the initial value problem for a number of points, e.g. from x = 0 to x = 1 with step size 0.1, then it is advisable to "integrate" and thus not to restart at x = 0 with every new step.
Example
Solve the differential equation y" = 10 (y  x^{2}) with the initial condition y(0) = 0 for x = 0, 0.5, ..., 5. Compare with the exact solution y(x) = 0.02 exp(10 x) + x^{2}  0.2 x + 0.02
program solve_ode; uses typ, ode; function f(x, y: ArbFloat): Arbfloat; begin Result := 10 * (y  sqr(x)); end; function exact(x: real): real; far; begin Result := 0.02*exp(10*x) + sqr(x)  0.2*x + 0.02; end; const d = 0.5; // interval length ae = 1e5; n = 10; var a, b: ArbFloat; ya, yb: ArbFloat; term: ArbInt; i: Arbint; begin // Set initial conditions a := 0.0; b := a + d; ya := 0.0; WriteLn('x':12, 'y':12, 'exact':12, 'error code':17); WriteLn; WriteLn(a:12:5, ya:12:5, exact(a):12:5, '':17); for i := 1 to n do begin odeiv1(@f, a, ya, b, yb, ae, term); WriteLn(b:12:5, yb:12:5, exact(b):12:5, term:17); a := b; ya := yb; b := b + d; end; end.
Solving a system of firstorder differential equations
An initial value problem described by system of firstorder differential equations can be solved by the procedure odeiv2
:
[math]\begin{cases}
\mathbf{y}' = \mathbf{f}(x, \mathbf{y}), \qquad x \in [a, b]\\
\mathbf{y}(a) = \mathbf{\alpha}
\end{cases}
[/math]
where
 y is an unknown n vector
 y: [a, b] > R^{n}
 or: y = [y_{1}(x), y_{2}(x), ..., y_{n}(x)]
 f is a vector function
 f: [a, b] > R^{n}
 or: f(x, y) = [f_{1}(x,y), f_{2}(x,y), ..., f_{n}(x,y)]
 a, b, and the initial conditions α = y(a) = [y_{1}(a), y_{2}(a), ... y_{n}(a)] are given.
The algorithm is based on an explicit onestep RungeKutta method of order five with variable step size.
procedure odeiv2(f: oderk1n; a: ArbFloat; var ya, b, yb: ArbFloat; n: ArbInt; ae: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt);
 The parameter
f
contains the name of the procedure that calculates the function values f_{i}(x, y_{i}). The declaration of the procedure must match thetype oderk1n = procedure(x: ArbFloat; var y, fxy: ArbFloat)
declared in unit typ. Herex
is the coordinate in the interval [a, b], andy
is the first value of an array of y values to be used in each equation of the ODE system. The function result is returned in another array which is specified by its first valuefxy
. Both arrays must be dimensioned to provide at least n elements. 
a
is the begin of the calculation interval. 
ya
is the first element of an array containing the initial conditions for each ODE of the system, i.e. the function values y_{i}(a) = α_{i}. The array must be allocated to containt at least n elements. 
b
is the end of the calculation interval. The casea > b
is allowed. If after the calculationterm
is 2 then the interval has been changed, andb
contains the new endpoint to which the solution could have been calculated with the desired accuracy,ae
. In all other cases,b
is unchanged. 
yb
is the first element of an array which receives the results of the calculation. It must be dimensioned to contain at least n elements. 
n
denotes the number of equations in the system. 
ae
specifies the absolute accuracy with which the solution must be calculated. 
term
is an error code: 1  successful completion.
 2  the solution could not reach the point b with the required accuracy. However, the values in the
yb
array are sufficiently accurate approximations of the y values at the deliveredb
.  3  input error:
n < 1
, orae <= 0
.
Example
Integrate the following initial value problem between x = 0 and x = 1 with step size 0.1: [math]\begin{cases} y'_{1}=2xy_{1}+y_{2} \\ y'_{2}=y_{1}+2xy_{2}\\ y_1(0)=0,\ y_2(0)=1 \end{cases} [/math]
The exact solutions are [math]\begin{cases} y_1(x)=\exp({x^2}) \sin(x) \\ y_2(x)=\exp({x^2}) \cos(x) \end{cases} [/math]
program solve_ode_sys; uses typ, ode; const ae = 1e5; procedure f(x: ArbFloat; var y, fxy: ArbFloat); var _y: array[1..2] of ArbFloat absolute y; _fxy: array[1..2] of ArbFloat absolute fxy; begin _fxy[1] := 2*x*_y[1] + _y[2]; _fxy[2] := _y[1] + 2*x*_y[2] end; function exact1(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; begin Result := exp(x*x) * sin(x); end; function exact2(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; begin Result := exp(x*x) * cos(x); end; var a, b, d: ArbFloat; ya: array[1..2] of ArbFloat; yb: array[1..2] of ArbFloat; term: ArbInt; i: Arbint; n: ArbInt; begin // Set initial conditions a := 0.0; b := 0.1; d := b  a; ya[1] := 0.0; ya[2] := 1.0; n := 10; WriteLn('x':12, 'y[1]':12, 'y[2]':12, 'exact[1]':12, 'exact[2]':12, 'error code':17); WriteLn; WriteLn(a:12:5, ya[1]:12:5, ya[2]:12:5, exact1(a):12:5, exact2(a):12:5, '':17); for i := 1 to n do begin odeiv2(@f, a, ya[1], b, yb[1], 2, ae, term); WriteLn(b:12:5, yb[1]:12:5, yb[2]:12:5, exact1(b):12:5, exact2(b):12:5, term:17); a := b; ya[1] := yb[1]; ya[2] := yb[2]; b := b + d; end; end.
Interpolation and fitting (unit ipf)
Unit ipf contains routines for
 fitting a set of data points with a polynomial,
 interpolating or fitting a set of data points with a natural cubic spline. A spline is a piecewise defined function of polynomials which has a high degree of smoothness at the connection points of the polynomials ("knots"). In case of a natural cubic spline, the polynomials have degree 3 and their second derivative is zero at the first and last knot.
Fitting means: determine an approximating smooth function such that the deviations from the data points are at minimum.
Interpolation means: determine a function that runs exactly through the data points.
Use of polynomials or splines is recommended unless the data are known to belong to a known function in which there are still some unknown parameters, for example, the data are measurements of the function f(x) = a + b e^{c x}.
In the most common case, the data contain measurement errors and appear to follow the shape of a "simple" function. Therefore, it is recommended to first try to fit with a lowdegree polynomial, e.g. not higher than degree 5. If this is not successful or if the shape of the function is more complicated try to fit with a spline.
If the data contain no (or very little) measurement noise, it is almost always wise to interpolate the data with a spline.
Fitting with a polynomial
For this purpose, the routine ipfpol
can be applied. It uses given data points (x_{i}, y_{i}), i = 1, ..., m, and n given coefficients b_{0}, ..., b_{n} to calculate a polynomial
[math]\operatorname{p}(x) = b_0 + b_1 x + \dots + b_n x^n [/math]
In the sense of the least squares fitting, the coefficients b_{0} ... b_{n} are adjusted to minimize the expression
[math] \sum_{i=1}^m {(\operatorname{p}(x)  y_i)^2}[/math]
procedure ipfpol(m, n: ArbInt; var x, y, b: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt);

m
denotes the number of data points. It is required thatm ≥ 1

n
is the degree of the polynomial to be fitted. It is required thatn > 0
. 
x
is the first element of a onedimensional array containing the x values of the data points. The array must be allocated to contain at leastm
values. 
y
is the first element of a onedimensional array containing the y values of the data points. The array must be dimensioned to contain at leastm
values. 
b
is the first element of a onedimenisonal array in which the determined polynomial coefficients are returned ifterm
is 1. The array must have been dimensioned to provide space for at leastn + 1
values. The returned coefficients are ordered from lowest to highest degree. 
term
returns an error code: 1  successful completion, the array
b
contains valid coefficients  3  input error:
n < 0
, orm < 1
.
 1  successful completion, the array
After the coefficients b_{0}, ..., b_{n} once have been determined the value of p(x) can be calculated for any x using the procedure spepol
from the unit spe.
Note: With this routine, of course, an interpolating polynomial can also be determined by equaling n to m  1.
Example
Fit a polynomial of degree 2 to these data points: [math] \begin{array}{ccc} \hline i & x_i & y_i \\ \hline 1 & 0.00 & 1.26 \\ 2 & 0.08 & 1.37 \\ 3 & 0.22 & 1.72 \\ 4 & 0.33 & 2.08 \\ 5 & 0.46 & 2.31 \\ 6 & 0.52 & 2.64 \\ 7 & 0.67 & 3.12 \\ 8 & 0.81 & 3.48 \end{array} [/math]
program polynomial_fit; uses SysUtils, StrUtils, typ, ipf, spe; const m = 8; n = 2; x: array[1..m] of Arbfloat = ( 0.00, 0.08, 0.22, 0.33, 0.46, 0.52, 0.67, 0.81 ); y: array[1..m] of Arbfloat = ( 1.26, 1.37, 1.72, 2.08, 2.31, 2.64, 3.12, 3.48 ); var b: array[0..n] of ArbFloat; i: Integer; term: ArbInt; xint, yint: ArbFloat; begin WriteLn('Fitting a polynomial of degree 2: p(x) = b[0] + b[1] x + b[2] x^2'); WriteLn; WriteLn('Data points'); WriteLn('i':10, 'xi':10, 'yi':10); for i:=1 to m do WriteLn(i:10, x[i]:10:2, y[i]:10:2); WriteLn; // Execute fit ipfpol(m, n, x[1], y[1], b[0], term); // Display fitted polynomial coefficients WriteLn('Fitted coefficients b = '); WriteLn(b[0]:10:6, b[1]:10:6, b[2]:10:6); WriteLn; // Interpolate and display fitted polynomial for some x values WriteLn('Some interpolated data'); WriteLn('':10, 'x':10, 'y':10); for i:= 1 to 5 do begin xint := 0.2*i; yint := spepol(xint, b[0], n); WriteLn('':10, xint:10:2, yint:10:2); end; end.
Interpolation with a natural cubic spline
The routine ipfisn
can be used for this purpose. It calculates the parameters of the spline. Once these parameters are known, the value of the spline can be calculated at any point using the ipfspn
procedure.
Assume that (x_{i}, y_{i}), i = 0, ..., n' are the given data points with x_{0} < x_{1} < ... < x_{n}. Then assume a function g(x) which is twice continuously differentiable (i.e., the first and second derivatives exist and are continuous) and which interpolates the data (i.e., g(x_{i} = y_{i}). Imagine g(x) as the shape of a thin flexible bar. Then the bending energy (in first approximation) is proportional to
[math]\int_{\infty}^{\infty} g''(x)^2 dx[/math]
The interpolating natural spline s can be understood as the function g which minimizes this integral and therefore the bending energy.
The spline s has the following properties:
 s is a cubic polynomial on the interval [x_{i}, x_{i+1}]
 it is twice continuously differentiable on (∞, ∞)
 s"(x_{0}) = s"(x_{n}) = 0
 on (∞, x_{0}) and (x_{n}, ∞) s is linear.
procedure ipfisn(n: ArbInt; var x, y, d2s: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt);
 Calculates the second derivatives of the splines at the knots x_{i}.

n
is the index of the last data point, i.e. there aren+1
data points. 
x
is the first element of the array with the x coordinates of the data points. It must be dimensioned to contain at lastn+1
values. The standard declaration would bevar x: array[0..n] of ArbFloat
. The data points must be in strictly ascending order, i.e. there must not be any data points for which x_{i} >= x_{i+1}. 
y
is the first element of the array with the y coordinates of the data points. It must be dimensioned to contain at lastn+1
values. The standard declaration would bevar y: array[0..n] of ArbFloat
. 
d2s
is the first element of the array which receives the second derivatives of the splines at the knots if the returned error codeterm
is 1. Note that the array does not contain values for the first and last data point because they are automatically set to 0 (natural splines). Therefore the array must be dimensioned to contain at leastn1
elements. The standard declaration would be:var d2s: array[1..n1] of ArbFloat

term
returns an error code: 1  successful completion, the array beginning at
d2s
contains valid data  2  calculation of the second derivatives was not successful
 3  incorrect input parameters: n ≤ 1, or x_{i} ≥ x_{i+1}
 1  successful completion, the array beginning at
function ipfspn(n: ArbInt; var x, y, d2s: ArbFloat; t: ArbFloat; var term: ArbInt): ArbFloat;
 Calculates the value of the spline function at any coordinate t. The calculation uses the second derivatives determined by
ipnisn
. 
n
,x
,y
,d2s
have the same meaning as above 
term
returns an error code: 1  successful completion
 3  The calculation could not be executed because n ≤ 1.
Example
Interpolate a natural cubic spline through the following data points: [math] \begin{array}{ccc} \hline i & x_i & y_i \\ \hline 0 & 0.00 & 0.980 \\ 1 & 0.09 & 0.927 \\ 2 & 0.22 & 0.732 \\ 3 & 0.34 & 0.542 \\ 4 & 0.47 & 0.385 \\ 5 & 0.58 & 0.292 \\ 6 & 0.65 & 0.248 \\ 7 & 0.80 & 0.179 \\ 8 & 0.93 & 0.139 \end{array} [/math]
program spline_interpolation; uses typ, ipf; const n = 8; x: array[0..n] of Arbfloat = ( 0.00, 0.09, 0.22, 0.34, 0.47, 0.58, 0.65, 0.80, 0.93 ); y: array[0..n] of Arbfloat = ( 0.990, 0.927, 0.734, 0.542, 0.388, 0.292, 0.248, 0.179, 0.139 ); var s: array[0..n] of ArbFloat; d2s: array[1..n1] of ArbFloat; i: Integer; term: ArbInt; xint, yint: ArbFloat; begin WriteLn('Interpolation with a natural cubic spline'); WriteLn; WriteLn('Data points'); WriteLn('i':10, 'xi':10, 'yi':10); for i:=0 to n do WriteLn(i:10, x[i]:10:2, y[i]:10:3); WriteLn; // Interpolation ipfisn(n, x[0], y[0], d2s[1], term); // Display 2nd derivatives of splines at xi WriteLn('s"(xi)'); Write(0.0:10:6); // 2nd derivative of 1st point is 0 for i:=1 to n1 do Write(d2s[i]:10:6); WriteLn(0.0:10:6); // 2nd derivative of last point is 0 WriteLn; // Interpolate for some x values WriteLn('Some interpolated data'); WriteLn('':10, 'x':10, 'y':10); for i:= 1 to 5 do begin xint := 0.2 * i; yint := ipfspn(n, x[0], y[0], d2s[1], xint, term); WriteLn('':10, xint:10:2, yint:10:2); end; end.
Fitting with a natural cubic spline
The routine ipffsn
can be used for this purpose. This routine calculates the splinefit parameters. Once these parameters are known the value of the spline can be calculated at any point using the procedure ipfspn
.
Following the model with the bending energy in the previous chapter the calculated fit minimizes
[math]\int_{\infty}^{\infty} g''(x)^2 dx + \lambda \sum_{i=0}^n (g(x_i)  y_i)^2[/math]
where the parameter λ must be determined. It is a measure of the compromise between the "smoothness" of the fit  which is measured by the integral (the bending energy)  and the deviation of the fit to the given data  which is measured by the sum of squares. The solution is again a natural cubic spline.
Special functions (unit spe)
Evaluation of a polynomial
Horner's scheme provides an efficient method for evaluating a polynomial at a specific x value:
 [math] \operatorname{p}(x) = a_0 + a_1 x + a_2 x^2 + ... + a_n x^n \ \Rightarrow \ \operatorname{p}(x) = a_0 + x (a_1 + x (a_2 + \dots + x (a_{n1} + x a_n)))[/math]
This method is applied in NumLib's procedure spepol
:
function spepol(x: ArbFloat; var a: ArbFloat; n: ArbInt): ArbFloat;

x
is the argument at which the polynomial is evaluated. 
a
is the first element of an array containing the polynomial coefficients a_{0}, a_{1}, a_{2}, ... a_{n}. The coefficient must be ordered from lowest to highest degree. 
n
is the degree of the polynomial, i.e. there aren+1
elements in the array.
Example
Evaluate the polynomial
 [math]\operatorname{p}(x) = 2 x^3  6 x^2 + 2 x  1[/math]
at x = 3. Note that the terms are not in the correct order for spepol
and rearrange them to
 [math]\operatorname{p}(x) = 1 + 2 x  6 x^2 + 2 x^3[/math]
program polynomial; uses typ, spe; const n = 3; a: array[0..n] of ArbFloat = (1, 2, 6, 2); var x, y: ArbFloat; begin x := 3.0; y := spepol(x, a[0], n); WriteLn(y:0:6); end.
Error function
The error function erf(x) and its complement, the complementary error function erfc(x), are the lower and upper integrals of the Gaussian function, normalized to unity:
 [math]\operatorname{erf}(x) = \frac {2} {\sqrt{\pi}} \int_0^x e^{{t}^2} dt [/math]
 [math]\operatorname{erfc}(x) = \frac {2} {\sqrt{\pi}} \int_x^\infty e^{{t}^2} dt = {1}  \operatorname{erf}(x)[/math]
Both functions can be calculated by the NumLib functions speerf
and speefc
, respectively
function speerf(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; // > erf(x) function speefc(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; // > erfc(x)
Example
A table of some values of the error function and the complementary error function is calculated in the following demo project:
program erf_Table; uses SysUtils, StrUtils, typ, spe; const Wx = 7; Wy = 20; D = 6; var i: Integer; x: ArbFloat; fs: TFormatSettings; begin fs := DefaultFormatSettings; fs.DecimalSeparator := '.'; WriteLn('x':Wx, 'erf(x)':Wy+1, 'erfc(x)':Wy+1); WriteLn; for i:= 0 to 20 do begin x := 0.1*i; WriteLn(Format('%*.1f %*.*f %*.*f', [ Wx, x, Wy, D, speerf(x), Wy, D, speefc(x) ], fs)); end; end.
Normal distribution
The (cumulative) normal distribution is the integral of the Gaussian function with zero mean and unit standard deviation, i.e.
[math] \operatorname{N}(x) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}} \int_{\infty}^{x} \operatorname{exp}(\frac{t^2}{2}) dt = \frac{1}{2}[1 + \operatorname{erf} (\frac{x}{\sqrt{2}})] [/math]
Suppose a set of random floating point numbers which are distributed according to this formula. Then N(x) measures the probability that a number from this set is smaller than x.
In NumLib, the normal distribution is calculated by the function normaldist
:
function normaldist(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;

x
can take any value between ∞ and +∞.  The function result is between 0 and 1.
The inverse normal distribution of y returns the x value for which the normal distribution N(x) has the value y.
function invnormaldist(y: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;

y
is allowed only between 0 and 1.  The function can take any value between ∞ and +∞.
Example
Calculate the probabilities for x = 10, 8, ..., 12 for a normal distribution with mean μ = 2 and standard deviation σ = 5. In order to reduce this distribution to the standard normal distribution implemented by NumLib, we introduce a transformation x_{r} = (x  μ)/σ.
program normdist; uses typ, spe; const mu = 2.0; sigma = 5.0; x: array[0..12] of ArbFloat = (10, 8, 6, 4, 2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14); var xr, y: ArbFloat; i: Integer; begin WriteLn('Normal distribution with mean ', mu:0:1, ' and standard deviation ', sigma:0:1); WriteLn; WriteLn('x':20, 'y':20); for i:= 0 to High(x) do begin xr := (x[i]  mu) / sigma; y := normaldist(xr); WriteLn(x[i]:20:1, y:20:6); end; end.
Gamma function
The gamma function is needed by many probability functions. It is defined by the integral
 [math]\Gamma({x}) = \int_0^{\infty}t^{x1} e^{t} dt[/math]
NumLib provides two functions for its calculation:
function spegam(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; function spelga(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;
The first one, spegam
, calculates the function directly. But since the gamma function grows rapidly for even nottoo large arguments this calculation very easily overflows.
The second function, spelga
calculates the natural logarithm of the gamma function which is more suitable to combinatorial calculations where multiplying and dividing the large gamma values can be avoided by adding or subtracting their logarithms.
Example
The following demo project prints a table of some values of the gamma function and of its logarithm. Note that spegam(x)
overflows above about x = 170 for data type extended
.
program Gamma_Table; uses SysUtils, StrUtils, typ, spe; const VALUES: array[0..2] of ArbFloat = (1, 2, 5); Wx = 7; Wy = 30; Wln = 20; var i: Integer; x: ArbFloat; magnitude: ArbFloat; begin WriteLn('x':Wx, 'Gamma(x)':Wy, 'ln(Gamma(x))':Wln); WriteLn; magnitude := 1E3; while magnitude <= 1000 do begin for i := 0 to High(VALUES) do begin x := VALUES[i] * magnitude; Write(PadLeft(FloatToStr(x), Wx)); if x <= 170 then // Extended overflow above 170 Write(FormatFloat('0.000', spegam(x)):Wy) else Write('overflow':Wy); WriteLn(spelga(x):Wln:3); if abs(x1000) < 1E6 then break; end; magnitude := magnitude * 10; end; end.
Incomplete gamma function
The lower and upper incomplete gamma functions are defined by
 [math]\operatorname{P}({s},{x}) = \frac{1}{\Gamma({s})} \int_0^{x}t^{s1} e^{t} dt [/math]
 [math]\operatorname{Q}({s},{x}) = \frac{1}{\Gamma({s})} \int_{x}^{\infty}t^{s1} e^{t} dt = 1  \operatorname{P}({s}, {x})[/math]
function gammap(s, x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; function gammaq(s, x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;
 The parameter
s
must be positive: s > 0  The argument
x
must not be negative: x ≥ 0  The function results are in the interval [0, 1].
Example
The following project prints out a table of gammap
and gammaq
values:
program IncompleteGamma_Table; uses SysUtils, StrUtils, typ, spe; const s = 1.25; Wx = 7; Wy = 20; D = 6; var i: Integer; x: ArbFloat; fs: TFormatSettings; begin fs := DefaultFormatSettings; fs.DecimalSeparator := '.'; WriteLn('x':Wx, 'GammaP('+FloatToStr(s,fs)+', x)':Wy+1, 'GammaQ('+FloatToStr(s,fs)+', x)':Wy+1); WriteLn; for i := 0 to 20 do begin x := 0.5*i; WriteLn(Format('%*.1f %*.*f %*.*f', [ Wx, x, Wy, D, gammap(s, x), Wy, D, gammaq(s, x) ], fs)); end; end.
Beta function
The Beta function is another basis of important functions used in statistics. It is defined as
 [math]\operatorname{B}(a, b) = \frac{{\Gamma(a)}{\Gamma(b)}}{\Gamma(a+b)} = \int_0^1{t^{x1} (1t)^{y1} dt}[/math]
The NumLib routine for its calculation is
function beta(a, b: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;
 The arguments
a
andb
must be positive:a > 0
andb > 1
.  The calculation is based on the logarithms of the gamma function and therefore does not suffer from the overflow issues of the gamma function.
Incomplete beta function
The (regularized) incomplete beta function is defined by
 [math]\operatorname{I}_x(a,b) = \frac {1}{\operatorname{B}(ab)} \int_0^x{t^{x1} (1t)^{y1} dt}[/math]
function betai(a, b, x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;
 The arguments
a
andb
must be positive:a > 0
andb > 1
. 
x
is only allowed to be in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.  The function result is in the interval [0, 1].
The inverse incomplete beta function determines the argument x for which the passed parameter is equal to I_{x}(a, b):
function invbetai(a, b, y: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;
The arguments <code>a
andb
must be positive:a > 0
andb > 1
.
y
is only allowed to be in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.  The function result is in the interval [0, 1].
Example
Calculate the incomplete beta function for some values of x, a, b, and apply the result to the inverse incomplete beta function to demonstrate the validity of the calculations.
program incomplete_beta_func; uses SysUtils, typ, spe; procedure TestBetai(a, b, x: ArbFloat); var xc, y: ArbFloat; begin y := betai(a, b, x); xc := invbetai(a, b, y, macheps); WriteLn(' x = ', x:0:6, ' > y = ', y:0:9, ' > x = ', xc:0:6); end; begin WriteLn('Incomplete beta function and its inverse'); WriteLn; WriteLn(' y = betai(1, 3, x) x = invbetai(1, 3, y)'); TestBetaI(1, 3, 0.001); TestBetaI(1, 3, 0.01); TestBetaI(1, 3, 0.1); TestBetaI(1, 3, 0.2); TestBetaI(1, 3, 0.9); TestBetaI(1, 3, 0.99); TestBetaI(1, 3, 0.999); WriteLn; WriteLn(' y = betai(1, 1, x) x = invbetai(1, 1, y)'); TestBetaI(1, 1, 0.001); TestBetaI(1, 1, 0.01); TestBetaI(1, 1, 0.1); TestBetaI(1, 1, 0.2); TestBetaI(1, 1, 0.9); TestBetaI(1, 1, 0.99); TestBetaI(1, 1, 0.999); WriteLn; WriteLn(' y = betai(3, 1, x) x = invbetai(3, 1, y)'); TestBetaI(3, 1, 0.001); TestBetaI(3, 1, 0.01); TestBetaI(3, 1, 0.1); TestBetaI(3, 1, 0.2); TestBetaI(3, 1, 0.9); TestBetaI(3, 1, 0.99); TestBetaI(3, 1, 0.999); WriteLn; end.
Bessel functions
The Bessel functions are solutions of the Bessel differential equation:
 [math]{x}^2 y'' + x y' + ({x}^2  \alpha^2) {y} = 0[/math]
The Bessel functions of the first kind, or cylindrical harmonics, J_{α}(x), are the solutions which are not singular at the origin, in contrast to the Bessel functions of the second kind, Y_{α}(x). Y_{α}(x) is only defined for x > 0.
Example
 Calculate the probability that random normaldistributed numbers are within 1, 2, and 3 standard deviations around the mean.
 Calculate the maximum deviation of normaldistributed deviates (in units of standard deviations) from the mean at probabilities 0.90, 0.95, 0.98, 0.99 and 0.999.
The solutions for a purely imaginary argument are called modified Bessel functions of the first kind, I_{α}(x), and modified Bessel function of the second kind, K_{α}(x). K_{α}(x) is only defined for x > 0.
NumLib implements only the solutions for the parameters α = 0 and α = 1:
function spebj0(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; // Bessel function of the first kind, J0 (alpha = 0) function spebj1(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; // Bessel function of the first kind, J1 (alpha = 1) function speby0(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; // Bessel function of the second kind, Y0 (alpha = 0) function speby1(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; // Bessel function of the second kind, Y1 (alpha = 1) function spebi0(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; // modified Bessel function of the first kind, I0 (alpha = 0) function spebi1(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; // modified Bessel function of the first kind, I1 (alpha = 1) function spebk0(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; // modified Bessel function of the second kind, K0 (alpha = 0) function spebk1(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat; // modified Bessel function of the second kind, K1 (alpha = 1)
Other functions
The unit spe contains some other functions which will not be documented here because they are already available in th FPC's standard unit math.
Function  Equivalent function in math 
Description 

function speent(x: ArbFloat): LongInt;

floor(x)

Entier function, calculates first integer smaller than or equal to x

function spemax(a, b: Arbfloat): ArbFloat;

max(a, b)

Maximum of two floating point values 
function spepow(a, b: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;

power(a, b)

Calculates a^{b} 
function spesgn(x: ArbFloat): ArbInt;

sign(x)

Returns the sign of x (1 for x < 0 , 0 for x = 0 , +1 for x > 0 )

function spears(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;

arcsin(x)

Inverse function of sin(x)

function spearc(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;

arccos(x)

Inverse function of cos(x)

function spesih(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;

sinh(x)

Hyperbolic sine 
function specoh(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;

cosh(x)

Hyperbolic cosine 
function spetah(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;

tanh(x)

Hyperbolic tangent 
function speash(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;

arcsinh(x)

Inverse of the hyperbolic sine 
function speach(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;

arccosh(x)

Inverse of the hyperbolic cosine 
function speath(x: ArbFloat): ArbFloat;

arctanh(x)

Inverse of the hyperbolic tangent 