Difference between revisions of "Installing the Free Pascal Compiler/zh CN"
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== Windows ==
== Windows ==
[https://sourceforge.net/projects/freepascal/files/Win32/3.2.0/ ]- Pascal
=== Installing from source on Windows ===
=== Installing from source on Windows ===
Revision as of 04:54, 26 July 2020
There is an extensive discussion of how to install and build Free Pascal compilers available here http://www.stack.nl/~marcov/buildfaq.pdf - it may be a little too detailed for some users, but is very comprehensive.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Linux
- 3 FreeBSD
- 4 Installing from source on BSD/Linux
- 5 Windows
- 6 macOS
- 7 Other macOS installation options
- 8 Testing the FPC Install
- 9 安装交叉编译器
- 10 请参阅
There are a number of ways to install FPC on your system. The current version and trunk and, sometimes beta and release candidates are available direct from the FPC website https://sourceforge.net/projects/freepascal/files/ (tar, exe, rpm, dmg files). In addition, versions of FPC are provided (including rpm and deb files), from the Lazarus download site, http://sourceforge.net/projects/lazarus/files/. Linux users can almost certainly find FPC in their distro's repositories but may find it is out dated.
It is possible to build FPC from source, typically each release can be built with the previous release. It is possible to install FPC in the application space (often requiring root or administrator access) or in a your own user space. These things depend on your particular operating system.
FPC Binary Packages
With the recent release of FPC 3.2.0, only a few distributions will have the new FPC compiler in its repositories. You can do one of -
- If you use rpm packages, you can find FPC320 in https://sourceforge.net/projects/freepascal/files/Linux/3.2.0/ or more generally in https://www.freepascal.org/download.html You might install using a command like -
yum localinstall fpc-3.2.0-1.x86_64.rpm // or perhaps rpm -Uvh fpc-3.2.0-1.x86_64.rpm
- If you use deb packages try the ones made available by, but not bundled with Lazarus at https://sourceforge.net/projects/lazarus/files/. Install using gdebi or, perhaps this command (note the ./ in front of filename, if you don't use an explicit path to filename, apt will search its own official repo, not what you want)-
apt install ./fpc-laz_3.2.0-1_amd64.deb
FPC Tar Balls
Another option is installing from a tar, an easy and possibly even more useful model. These tars are available for a wide range of Unix like systems. You need to download the appropriate binary tar for your OS and CPU and you may also need the source files, common for all OS/CPU. You install FPC this way in your own space, not as root.
Here is a series of commands, not a script, that will install FPC on a 64 bit Linux system. It could be scripted but would would need sanity and error checking. Note that I like to install things like this in my $HOME/bin directory, if you prefer having it in $HOME, it is even easier, I am sure you can see the differences.
cd mkdir -p bin/FPC/Tars mkdir bin/FPC/SRC cd bin/FPC/Tars # download src and compiler tars, change for different CPU (or Mac ?) wget https://sourceforge.net/projects/freepascal/files/Source/3.2.0/fpc-3.2.0.source.tar.gz wget https://sourceforge.net/projects/freepascal/files/Linux/3.2.0/fpc-3.2.0-x86_64-linux.tar tar xf fpc-3.2.0-x86_64-linux.tar cd fpc-3.2.0-x86_64-linux ./install.sh # when asked where to install, enter $HOME/bin/FPC/fpc-3.2.0, accept all defaults after that. cd ../../SRC tar xzf ../Tars/fpc-3.2.0.source.tar.gz # Set a path to where the compiler is, add line at end of .bashrc, if you don't use bash, adjust ! echo "PATH=\"\$HOME/bin/FPC/fpc-3.2.0/bin\":\"\$PATH\"" >> ~/.bashrc source ~/.bashrc # trivial test cd fpc -iV
The FPC source files are stored in a Subversion (SVN) repository that keeps track of all changes of the source tree. Once you have the sources, please see Installing from source under BSD/Linux for instructions on how to install them.
Update from the source repository using SVN
The SVN repository has been made accessible for everyone, with read-only access. This means that you can directly access the code, and you will have really the last-minute sources available. It is also a method which requires less bandwidth once you have done the first download (checkout in SVN lingo).
Getting the source
First, you need to have an SVN client installed. Use your package manager, install a tool like TortoiseSVN on Windows, or look at the web site for more details.
Using command line SVN: change directory (cd) to the parent directory of your development area, eg To retrieve the full source repository for the first time into an fpc subdirectory under your home directory, type:
cd ~ svn checkout http://svn.freepascal.org/svn/fpc/trunk fpc
To update the sources which were downloaded (checked out) above:
cd ~ svn update fpc
Getting a separate branch
If the current trunk version is in a state of rapid change and unsuitable for much use unless you want to work on the compiler itself, you can stay on a version that is updated with fixes. To do this, you have to find out a stable branch that you want to track instead of the default trunk development version.
The example below shows how you can track the fixes_3_2 version; of course replace as needed depending on what branch you want to track.
This example keeps the fixes in another directory under your home directory - it wouldn't make sense to put two versions of the source in one directory...
cd ~ svn checkout http://svn.freepascal.org/svn/fpc/branches/fixes_3_2 fpc_fixes_3_2
Update as usual:
cd ~ svn update fpc_fixes_3_2
The documentation sources are in a separate repository called fpcdocs, so the command to get them is:
cd ~ svn checkout http://svn.freepascal.org/svn/fpcdocs/trunk fpcdocs
If you want to learn more about subversion, read this excellent Subversion book which is also available online in different formats for free.
For more information, see the Free Pascal website.
Installing from the ports collection
The FreeBSD ports collection has FPC v3.0.4 version in /usr/ports/lang/fpc. FPC is scattered over 38 (!) packages. The FPC source is now installed by default; it previously needed to be copied and uncompressed from /usr/ports/distfiles/freepascal.
This must be done as root.
# cd /usr/ports/lang/fpc && make install && make clean
Once FPC is installed you can check if it's working by simply running as a normal user:
$ fpc test
which should produce output similar to this:
Free Pascal Compiler version 3.0.4 [2020/06/14] for x86_64 Copyright (c) 1993-2017 by Florian Klaempfl and others Target OS: FreeBSD for x86-64 Compiling test Fatal: Cannot open file "test" Fatal: Compilation aborted Error: /usr/local/bin/ppcx64 returned an error exitcode
Installing from tar
To install Free Pascal from a terminal:
$ fetch ftp://ftp.freepascal.org/pub/fpc/dist/3.2.0/x86_64-freebsd/fpc-3.2.0.x86_64-freebsd11.tar $ tar -xf fpc-$FPC_VERSION.$PLATFORM-freebsd11.tar $ cd fpc-3.2.0.x86_64-freebsd $ sh install.sh
Replace the desired Free Pascal version (3.0.4, 3.2.0 or 3.3.1) and architecture (X86_64 or i386) as required.
If you want to install the Free Pascal Compiler globally, for example in /usr/local, run the install.sh script as root.
If you are on FreeBSD 12 or newer, the default linker is the
lld. This may cause problems if you have code that uses, for example, the cthreads unit as in the following program:
uses cthreads; begin writeln('hello'); end.
The executable generated for this program will cause a segmentation fault when run. To fix this issue, you need to install the GNU linker:
root# pkg install binutils
and make sure that /usr/local/bin/ occurs in your PATH environment variable before /usr/bin/.
Installing from source on BSD/Linux
Effectively, you need:
1. A file with all FPC sources (https://sourceforge.net/projects/freepascal/files/Source/3.2.0/fpc-3.2.0.source.tar.gz).
2. A starting (bootstrap) FPC compiler. An FPC release can always be built by the previously released FPC version, and FPC trunk can always be built by the current FPC release. You can download a bootstrap Free Pascal Compiler or use your distribution's package management/software system to install one.
FPC build process:
- Fetch necessary files (starting compiler), FPC source file or source svn directory
- If using FPC source files: extract/de-tgz in work directory,
- Build: enter work/fpc/ and run:
# Linux use: export MAKE=`which make` ; echo $MAKE # FreeBSD use (default csh, or tcsh): set MAKE=`which gmake` ; echo $MAKE # FreeBSD use (bash): export MAKE=`which gmake` ; echo $MAKE $MAKE all OPT='-gl' FPC=/path/to/startingcompiler-name-ppcx64 # $MAKE is make on Linux and gmake on BSD # /path/to/ can be omitted when ppc386 (32 bit) or ppcx64 (64 bit) is in the path
- Install FPC. Again in work/fpc, run
$MAKE install FPC=compiler/ppcx64 PREFIX=$THEPREFIX #replace the FPC=compiler/ppcx64 (or ppc386 for 32 bit) with the relevant compiler if not on Intel x86 #THEPREFIX= usually is /usr/local or just /usr, but eg on NetBSD it is /usr/pkg for ports)
- Create a symlink:
ln -s $THEPREFIX/lib/fpc/3.2.0/ppcx64 $THEPREFIX/bin/ppcx64
- Install sources:
$MAKE install sourceinstall PREFIX=$THEPREFIX
- Create a symlink for default FPC source path:
ln -sf $THEPREFIX/share/src/3.2.0/fpc /usr/share/fpcsrc
- Set up fpc.cfg configuration file:
$THEPREFIX/lib/fpc/3.2.0/samplecfg $THEPREFIX/lib/fpc/3.2.0 $ETCDIR
- Optionally test to see if
ppcx64 -i(or whatever compiler your architecture uses) gives output, else give a warning that user needs to add $PREFIX/bin to the current path. Try to compile a program with
ppcx64 -viwn, and see if that gives errors.
- If you need fpcmake package lists, you need to generate or supply them yourself, (in the port, or in an extra archive) either way, do a dummy install to /tmp/pack and determine the files installed with
find . >ll
- $THEPREFIX and $ETCDIR should be user configurable. Otherwise local installs aren't possible.
- BSDHIER=1 on all make commands forces BSD hierarchy conventions.
到目前为止，获取一个可以工作的Free Pascal安装的最简单的方法是，从SourceForge存储库现在当前的二进制发布版本 - 发布版本包含当前的Free Pascal编译器和Free Pascal 库。
Installing from source on Windows
Installing from the sources -- see the next section to know how to get them -- is not for novices, since you need a starting compiler as well.
<<<< See section above under FPC Sources for Linux, where the use of SVN is described >>>>
The easiest way to get the Free Pascal sources is via SVN; see the next section for more on that. You can also download the package as a whole -- see https://www.freepascal.org/develop.html for the daily snapshot of the release tree.
FPC Sources via SVN
You will need to have a SVN client such as TortoiseSVN installed in order to perform the steps below. The exact commands vary between SVN clients; the ones given below are for the command line Subversion client downloadable from https://sourceforge.net/projects/win32svn/.
First create a directory in which you'd like to put the sources. Any normal user can do this. Create a directory for FPC (e.g. C:\Source), then do the following at the command prompt:
C:\Source> svn checkout https://svn.freepascal.org/svn/fpc/trunk fpc
Hint: To download/update the latest changes you can simply do
C:\> cd Source\FPC C:\Source\FPC> svn update
See: https://www.freepascal.org/down/i386/win32.html. Download the distribution package (fpc-3.2.0.i386-win32.exe) and run it - it is a self-extracting installer, so just follow the instructions to install it. The installer should set the PATH environment variable as appropriate.
Then restart windows.
After you have FPC binaries installed you can build FPC source from subversion.
- Windows (7+) requires that an elevated user status command prompt be used. From the start menu for "Command Prompt" right click and select "Run as Administrator".
- YOUR-PREFIX is totally dependent on where you installed FPC to. At the time of this writing, the binaries are instructed to use a default location of "C:\FPC" and they were placed in "C:\FPC\3.2.0". Under Linux, the make install scripts were adjusted to create a new sub-folder IF the FPC version changed since last build. The Windows scripts do not. So if you know the sub-folder name ie. 3.1.1 you can specify that. However, since versions change frequently, it is recommended that you just select and maintain a single PREFIX with no respect for FPC versions. A good prefix is C:\FPC but you must also make sure that the C:\FPC\bin\i386-win32\ folder is added to your path environment variable (see above on how to set your path and change it from the binary version to the newly compiled one).
- In command Prompt navigate to the localized FPC source. ie.) type "cd c:\Developer\FPC"
- To build FPC type "make all"
- To overwrite existing FPC type "make install PREFIX=YOUR-PREFIX"
- To install source type "make install sourceinstall PREFIX=YOUR-PREFIX"
Compiling/installing FPC from sources with SVN (Win32)
Version FPC 3.2.0 or trunk
STEP #1: Create directories and get the sources
Create the following directories:
c:\freepascal\ c:\freepascal\binutils\ c:\freepascal\binutils\i386-win32\ c:\freepascal\fpc\ c:\freepascal\fpc\3.2.0\
or for fpc trunk:
c:\freepascal\ c:\freepascal\binutils\ c:\freepascal\binutils\i386-win32\ c:\freepascal\fpc\ c:\freepascal\fpc\trunk\
You will need the latest released compiler to build a new compiler. Get the ppc386 (the compiler) with FTP (below) and unzip it in c:\freepascal\binutils\
After installing TortoiseSVN, download the sources from SVN using a URL for each directory, see:
Dir: c:\freepascal\binutils\i386-win32\ URL: https://svn.freepascal.org/svn/fpcbuild/branches/fixes_3_0/install/binw32
or for fpc trunk:
Dir: c:\freepascal\binutils\i386-win32\ URL: https://svn.freepascal.org/svn/fpcbuild/trunk/install/binw32
Dir: c:\freepascal\fpc\3.0.4 URL: https://svn.freepascal.org/svn/fpc/branches/fixes_3_0/
or for fpc trunk:
Dir: c:\freepascal\fpc\trunk URL: https://svn.freepascal.org/svn/fpc/trunk/
STEP #2: Create a BAT file to compile FPC
After everything is downloaded, we need a BAT file to compile the FPC sources. Create a new file c:\freepascal\makefpc.bat and copy/paste the following script:
@echo on set myroot=c:\freepascal set myFPC=%myroot%\fpc\3.2.0 set mybinutils=%myroot%\binutils set PATH=%PATH%;%mybinutils%\i386-win32;%myFPC%\bin\i386-win32 cd %myFPC% rd /s /q %myfpc%\examples svn cleanup . --remove-unversioned --remove-ignored make distclean all install INSTALL_PREFIX=%myFPC% PP=%mybinutils%\ppc386.exe DATA2INC=%myFPC%\utils\data2inc.exe cd /d %myFPC%\bin\i386-win32 fpcmkcfg -d basepath=%myFPC% -o .\fpc.cfg copy fpc.exe %mybinutils%\i386-win32
or for FPC trunk:
@echo on set myroot=c:\freepascal set myFPC=%myroot%\fpc\trunk set mybinutils=%myroot%\binutils set PATH=%PATH%;%mybinutils%\i386-win32;%myFPC%\bin\i386-win32 cd %myFPC% rd /s /q %myfpc%\examples svn cleanup . --remove-unversioned --remove-ignored make distclean all install INSTALL_PREFIX=%myFPC% PP=%mybinutils%\ppc386.exe DATA2INC=%myFPC%\utils\data2inc.exe cd /d %myFPC%\bin\i386-win32 del fpc.cfg fpcmkcfg -d basepath=%myFPC% -o .\fpc.cfg copy fpc.exe %mybinutils%\i386-win32
For crosscompiler to x86_64 add the following after the first make:
make all OS_TARGET=win64 CPU_TARGET=x86_64 INSTALL_PREFIX=%myFPC% PP=%mybinutils%\ppc386.exe DATA2INC=%myFPC%\utils\data2inc.exe make crossinstall OS_TARGET=win64 CPU_TARGET=x86_64 INSTALL_PREFIX=%myFPC% PP=%mybinutils%\ppc386.exe DATA2INC=%myFPC%\utils\data2inc.exe
STEP #3: Make and install FPC
At the prompt (cmd.exe), navigate to the directory c:\freepascal and execute the script we just wrote:
cd /d c:\freepascal makefpc.bat
Step 1: Download Xcode
You need the Apple Developer tools, which are a part of the Xcode development environment.
Xcode 11.3.1 for use on macOS 10.14 Mojave must now be installed by downloading it from Apple Developer Connection (ADC), which requires free registration. Xcode 11.4.x for use on macOS 10.15 Catalina can be installed from the Mac App store. Note that you must first move any old Xcode versions from the Applications folder into the trash or rename the Xcode app (eg Xcode.app to Xcode_1014.app). You can select which version of Xcode to use with the command line utility xcode-select.
The developer tools can be installed from the original macOS installation disks or a newer copy downloaded from the Apple Developer Connection (ADC), which requires free registration. Download the Xcode file, it will end up in your Downloads directory as a zip file. Click it. It is unarchived into your Downloads directory. You may be happy with it there but maybe not. Other users will see the path to it but be unable to use it. And it is untidy there. So I moved mine and then told xcode-select where it was moved to (in a terminal) -
mv Downloads/Xcode.app /Developer/. sudo xcode-select -s /Developer/Xcode.app/Contents/Developer
Step 2: Xcode Command Line Tools
This is shown here as a separate step because it really is a separate step in addition to Step 1. Don't confuse this with the internal Xcode command line tools that the Xcode GUI will tell you are already installed. FPC cannot use those Xcode internal command line tools, so do the following (it is quick and easy)-
sudo xcode-select --install sudo xcodebuild -license accept
Step 3: Download FPC
Download the Free Pascal Compiler (FPC) and FPC source from the Free Pascal website. When you arrive at the download page, select a mirror and then choose the correct version for your operating system.
These binary install kits are built by the FPC developers and track formal releases. As these install kits are not code signed nor notarized by Apple, you need to either control-click on the installation package and choose "Open" or right-click on the installation package and choose "Open" in the contextual menu and confirm you want to install from an Unknown Developer.
Other macOS installation options
You could also consider using fpcupdeluxe to install FPC.
fink & MacPorts
Alternatively, you can use one of the package managers for macOS, fink or MacPorts, to install FPC. Their extra bonus is easy installation as well as clean removal of FPC and a huge number of other open source software packages. Fink also offers numerous Free Pascal crosscompilers for many processors and operating systems.
Testing the FPC Install
You might like to try a simple and quick test of FPC at this stage. From the command line (Mac - Open an Application > Utilities > Terminal) and copy this very short program and save it as the file helloworld.pas:
program helloworld; begin writeln('hello world !'); end.
Now compile this simple code with this command line:
fpc helloworld.pas <enter>
It should very quickly make an executable called, you guessed it, "helloworld". Run this executable with this command:
If that worked, well done!