# Difference between revisions of "Recursion"

(New page: 4E - Recursion ''Recursion'' is a difficult topic to grasp. However, it's very easy to apply once you understand it. The programming assignment for this chapter will involve recursion. R...) |
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− | + | {{Recursion}} | |

+ | {{TYNavigator|Scope|Forward_Referencing}} | ||

− | + | 4E - Recursion (author: Tao Yue, state: unchanged) | |

− | Recursion means allowing a function or procedure to call | + | '''Recursion''' means allowing a function or procedure to call itself until some limit is reached. |

− | The summation function, designated by an uppercase Sigma in mathematics, | + | The summation function, designated by an uppercase letter ''sigma'' (Σ) in mathematics, can be written recursively: |

− | + | <syntaxhighlight lang=pascal> | |

− | + | function Summation (num : integer) : integer; | |

− | + | begin | |

− | + | if num = 1 | |

− | + | then Summation := 1 | |

− | + | else Summation := Summation(num-1) + num | |

− | + | end; | |

+ | </syntaxhighlight> | ||

Suppose you call <tt>Summation</tt> for <tt>3</tt>. | Suppose you call <tt>Summation</tt> for <tt>3</tt>. | ||

− | + | ||

+ | <syntaxhighlight lang=pascal> | ||

+ | a := Summation(3); | ||

+ | </syntaxhighlight> | ||

* <tt>Summation(3)</tt> becomes <tt>Summation(2) + 3</tt>. | * <tt>Summation(3)</tt> becomes <tt>Summation(2) + 3</tt>. | ||

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Recursion works backward until a given point is reached at which an answer is defined, and then works forward with that definition, solving the other definitions which rely upon that one. | Recursion works backward until a given point is reached at which an answer is defined, and then works forward with that definition, solving the other definitions which rely upon that one. | ||

− | All recursive procedures/functions should have | + | All recursive procedures/functions should have a test to stop the recursion, the base condition. Under all other conditions, the recursion should go deeper. If there is no base condition, the recursion will either not take place at all, or become infinite. |

+ | |||

+ | In the example above, the base condition was <tt>if num = 1</tt>. | ||

− | {| | + | {{TYNavigator|Scope|Forward_Referencing}} |

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## Latest revision as of 08:29, 25 February 2020

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4E - Recursion (author: Tao Yue, state: unchanged)

**Recursion** means allowing a function or procedure to call itself until some limit is reached.

The summation function, designated by an uppercase letter *sigma* (Σ) in mathematics, can be written recursively:

```
function Summation (num : integer) : integer;
begin
if num = 1
then Summation := 1
else Summation := Summation(num-1) + num
end;
```

Suppose you call `Summation` for `3`.

```
a := Summation(3);
```

`Summation(3)`becomes`Summation(2) + 3`.`Summation(2)`becomes`Summation(1) + 2`.- At
`1`, the recursion stops and becomes`1`. `Summation(2)`becomes`1 + 2 = 3`.`Summation(3)`becomes`3 + 3 = 6`.`a`becomes`6`.

Recursion works backward until a given point is reached at which an answer is defined, and then works forward with that definition, solving the other definitions which rely upon that one.

All recursive procedures/functions should have a test to stop the recursion, the base condition. Under all other conditions, the recursion should go deeper. If there is no base condition, the recursion will either not take place at all, or become infinite.

In the example above, the base condition was `if num = 1`.

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