Difference between revisions of "pas2js AsyncAWait"

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(Created page with "=Overview= Pas2js supports the JS operators async/await to simplify the use of Promise, which itself simplifies writing asynchronous code, like starting a download, waiting f...")
 
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Line 1: Line 1:
 
=Overview=
 
=Overview=
  
Pas2js supports the JS operators async/await to simplify the use of Promise, which itself simplifies writing asynchronous code, like starting a download, waiting for the result, then depending on the result start the next and so forth. Instead of writing a tedious and hard to read mass of sub functions an async procedure can be written in the common serial aka imperative way.
+
[[pas2js|Pas2js]] supports the JS operators async/await to simplify the use of Promise, which itself simplifies writing asynchronous code, like starting a download, waiting for the result, then depending on the result start the next and so forth. Instead of writing a tedious and hard to read mass of sub functions an async procedure can be written in the common serial aka imperative way.
 +
 
 +
=Basics=
 +
 
 +
First of we have the '''async''' keyword, which you add as a ''procedure type modifier'' to turn it into an ''async function'' (or ''async procedure''). An ''async function'' knows how to expect the possibility of the ''await'' function being used to invoke '''asynchronous''' code.
 +
 
 +
Usually you call an '''async''' function via the '''await''' function. To explain the inner workings it is useful to see what happens when you call an ''async'' function directly. Then you get a '''TJSPromise''':
 +
 
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="pascal">
 +
uses JS;
 +
 
 +
function Run: word; async;
 +
begin
 +
  Result:=3;
 +
end;
 +
 
 +
var p: TJSPromise;
 +
begin
 +
  p:=Run(); // calling directly without await() returns a TJSPromise!
 +
end.
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 +
 
 +
That's because an ''async'' function runs till an ''await'' and returns. If there is no ''await'' it works like a normal function, returning immediately a resolved TJSPromise. If it contains one or more ''await'' calls, each ''await'' pauses the execution of the async function and continues it asynchronously (single threaded) later.
 +
A ''TJSPromise'' has a hook for success and one for fail, which usually requires writing some anonymous functions. With async/await you can write much more readable code.
  
 
=AWait=
 
=AWait=
  
Pas2js provides two built-in '''await''' functions:
+
Pas2js provides a built-in '''await''' function, which supports three flavours:
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="pascal">
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="pascal">
function await(const Expr: T): T; // implicit promise
+
function await(AsyncFunctionOfResultTypeT): T;
 
function await(aType; p: TJSPromise): aType; // explicit promise requires the resolved type
 
function await(aType; p: TJSPromise): aType; // explicit promise requires the resolved type
 +
function await(const Expr: T): T; // with T not a TJSPromise
 
</syntaxhighlight>
 
</syntaxhighlight>
The await function can only be used inside a procedure with the async modifier.
+
 
For example:
+
The '''await''' function can only be used inside a procedure with the '''async''' modifier.
 +
 
 +
An '''async''' procedure can contain multiple '''await''' calls.
 +
 
 +
Giving a promise to ''await'' works as if the following code is inside a TJSPromise._then(). If the promise is already resolved, ''await'' returns the value immediately. Otherwise the promise is returned as the ''async'' function result and the rest of the ''async'' function is executed when the promise is resolved.
 +
 +
You can enclose an '''await''' function in ''try..finally'' or ''try..except'' for the case the ''TJSPromise'' raises an exception.
 +
 
 +
You can call ''await'' on any expression, e.g. ''await(1)'', but ''await'' has only an effect if the expression gives a ''TJSPromise''.
 +
 
 +
==Example Async try fetch==
 +
 
 +
Example demonstrating waiting for an async function, catching errors with a try..except and no anonymous functions.
 +
 
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="pascal">
 +
// Translated from https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Learn/JavaScript/Asynchronous/Async_await
 +
program tryfetch;
 +
 
 +
{$mode objfpc}
 +
 
 +
uses
 +
  browserconsole, JS, Web, SysUtils;
 +
 
 +
procedure myFetch; async;
 +
var
 +
  response: TJSResponse;
 +
  myBlob: TJSBlob;
 +
  image: TJSHTMLImageElement;
 +
  objectURL: string;
 +
begin
 +
  try
 +
    response := await(window.fetch('test1.png'));
 +
 
 +
    if not response.ok then
 +
      raise Exception.Create('HTTP error! status: '+str(response.status))
 +
    else begin
 +
      myBlob := await(response.blob());
 +
      objectURL := TJSURL.createObjectURL(myBlob);
 +
      image := TJSHTMLImageElement(document.createElement('img'));
 +
      image.src := objectURL;
 +
      document.body.appendChild(image);
 +
    end;
 +
  except
 +
    console.log(JSExceptValue);
 +
  end;
 +
end;
 +
 
 +
begin
 +
  myFetch;
 +
end.
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 +
 
 +
==Example Manually created promise ==
 +
 
 +
Example demonstrating using '''await''' with a non async function, creating the TJSPromise manually:
 +
 
 +
===Manually created promise Version 1===
  
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="pascal">
 
<syntaxhighlight lang="pascal">
Line 54: Line 134:
 
  called
 
  called
 
  resolved
 
  resolved
 +
 +
===Manually created promise Version 2===
 +
 +
Alternatively you can use the promise result type (here: string), by passing the ''TJSPromise'' to the '''exit()''' function:
 +
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="pascal">
 +
Program MyModule;
 +
 +
uses JS, Web;
 +
 +
function ResolveAfter2Seconds: string; async;
 +
// returns immediately with a Promise,
 +
// which after 2 seconds gets resolved
 +
var p: TJSPromise;
 +
begin
 +
  p:=TJSPromise.new(procedure(resolve, reject : TJSPromiseResolver)
 +
    begin
 +
    window.setTimeout(procedure
 +
      begin
 +
      resolve('resolved');
 +
      end,
 +
      2000); // wait 2 seconds
 +
    end);
 +
  exit(p); // the exit() function takes either a TJSPromise or a string
 +
end;
 +
 +
procedure AsyncCall; async;
 +
var s: string;
 +
begin
 +
  writeln('calling');
 +
  s := await(resolveAfter2Seconds()); // no "string" needed
 +
  // the await pauses this procedure returning to the caller
 +
  // when the Promise from resolveAfter2Seconds gets resolved
 +
  // this procedure is continued
 +
  writeln(s); // expected output: 'resolved'
 +
end;
 +
 +
begin
 +
  AsyncCall;
 +
  // calling AsyncCall returns immediately, while the Promise is waiting
 +
  writeln('called');
 +
end.
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 +
 +
Note: The '''Result''' variable is of type string. You cannot assign it a promise.
 +
 +
==Example Multi await==
 +
 +
Example demonstrating starting multiple async functions and waiting for them while they execute in parallel.
 +
 +
<syntaxhighlight lang="pascal">
 +
// Translated from https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Learn/JavaScript/Asynchronous/Async_await
 +
program tryfetchmany;
 +
 +
{$mode objfpc}
 +
 +
uses
 +
  browserconsole, JS, Web, SysUtils, Types;
 +
 +
function FetchBlob(url: string): TJSBlob; async;
 +
var
 +
  response: TJSResponse;
 +
begin
 +
  response := await(window.fetch(url));
 +
  if not response.ok then
 +
    raise Exception.create('HTTP error! status: '+str(response.status))
 +
  else
 +
    Result:=await(response.blob());
 +
end;
 +
 +
function FetchText(url: string): string; async;
 +
var
 +
  response: TJSResponse;
 +
begin
 +
  response := await(window.fetch(url));
 +
  if not response.ok then
 +
    raise Exception.create('HTTP error! status: '+str(response.status))
 +
  else
 +
    Result:=await(response.text());
 +
end;
 +
 +
procedure DisplayContent; async;
 +
var
 +
  coffee, tea, description: TJSPromise;
 +
  objectURL1, objectURL2, descText: String;
 +
  values: TJSValueDynArray;
 +
  image1, image2: TJSHTMLImageElement;
 +
  para: TJSHTMLElement;
 +
begin
 +
  try
 +
    coffee := FetchBlob('test1.png');
 +
    tea := FetchBlob('test1.png');
 +
    description := FetchText('description.txt');
 +
 +
    values := await(TJSValueDynArray,TJSPromise.all([coffee, tea, description]));
 +
 +
    objectURL1 := TJSURL.createObjectURL(values[0]);
 +
    objectURL2 := TJSURL.createObjectURL(values[1]);
 +
    descText := string(values[2]);
 +
 +
    image1 := TJSHTMLImageElement(document.createElement('img'));
 +
    image2 := TJSHTMLImageElement(document.createElement('img'));
 +
    image1.src := objectURL1;
 +
    image2.src := objectURL2;
 +
    document.body.appendChild(image1);
 +
    document.body.appendChild(image2);
 +
 +
    para := TJSHTMLElement(document.createElement('p'));
 +
    para.textContent := descText;
 +
    document.body.appendChild(para);
 +
 +
  except
 +
    writeln(JSExceptValue);
 +
  end;
 +
end;
 +
 +
begin
 +
  DisplayContent;
 +
end.
 +
</syntaxhighlight>
 +
 +
=Navigation=
 +
* [[pas2js|Pas2js]]
 +
 +
[[Category:Pas2js]]

Revision as of 14:55, 18 November 2020

Overview

Pas2js supports the JS operators async/await to simplify the use of Promise, which itself simplifies writing asynchronous code, like starting a download, waiting for the result, then depending on the result start the next and so forth. Instead of writing a tedious and hard to read mass of sub functions an async procedure can be written in the common serial aka imperative way.

Basics

First of we have the async keyword, which you add as a procedure type modifier to turn it into an async function (or async procedure). An async function knows how to expect the possibility of the await function being used to invoke asynchronous code.

Usually you call an async function via the await function. To explain the inner workings it is useful to see what happens when you call an async function directly. Then you get a TJSPromise:

uses JS;

function Run: word; async;
begin
  Result:=3;
end;

var p: TJSPromise;
begin
  p:=Run(); // calling directly without await() returns a TJSPromise!
end.

That's because an async function runs till an await and returns. If there is no await it works like a normal function, returning immediately a resolved TJSPromise. If it contains one or more await calls, each await pauses the execution of the async function and continues it asynchronously (single threaded) later. A TJSPromise has a hook for success and one for fail, which usually requires writing some anonymous functions. With async/await you can write much more readable code.

AWait

Pas2js provides a built-in await function, which supports three flavours:

function await(AsyncFunctionOfResultTypeT): T;
function await(aType; p: TJSPromise): aType; // explicit promise requires the resolved type
function await(const Expr: T): T; // with T not a TJSPromise

The await function can only be used inside a procedure with the async modifier.

An async procedure can contain multiple await calls.

Giving a promise to await works as if the following code is inside a TJSPromise._then(). If the promise is already resolved, await returns the value immediately. Otherwise the promise is returned as the async function result and the rest of the async function is executed when the promise is resolved.

You can enclose an await function in try..finally or try..except for the case the TJSPromise raises an exception.

You can call await on any expression, e.g. await(1), but await has only an effect if the expression gives a TJSPromise.

Example Async try fetch

Example demonstrating waiting for an async function, catching errors with a try..except and no anonymous functions.

// Translated from https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Learn/JavaScript/Asynchronous/Async_await
program tryfetch;

{$mode objfpc}

uses
  browserconsole, JS, Web, SysUtils;

procedure myFetch; async;
var
  response: TJSResponse;
  myBlob: TJSBlob;
  image: TJSHTMLImageElement;
  objectURL: string;
begin
  try
    response := await(window.fetch('test1.png'));

    if not response.ok then
      raise Exception.Create('HTTP error! status: '+str(response.status))
    else begin
      myBlob := await(response.blob());
      objectURL := TJSURL.createObjectURL(myBlob);
      image := TJSHTMLImageElement(document.createElement('img'));
      image.src := objectURL;
      document.body.appendChild(image);
    end;
  except
    console.log(JSExceptValue);
  end;
end;

begin
  myFetch;
end.

Example Manually created promise

Example demonstrating using await with a non async function, creating the TJSPromise manually:

Manually created promise Version 1

Program MyModule;

uses JS, Web;

function ResolveAfter2Seconds: TJSPromise;
// returns immediately with a Promise,
// which after 2 seconds gets resolved
begin
  Result:=TJSPromise.new(procedure(resolve, reject : TJSPromiseResolver)
    begin
    window.setTimeout(procedure
      begin
      resolve('resolved');
      end,
      2000); // wait 2 seconds
    end);
end;

procedure AsyncCall; async;
var s: string;
begin
  writeln('calling');
  s := await(string,resolveAfter2Seconds());
  // the await pauses this procedure returning to the caller
  // when the Promise from resolveAfter2Seconds gets resolved 
  // this procedure is continued
  writeln(s); // expected output: 'resolved'
end;

begin
  AsyncCall;
  // calling AsyncCall returns immediately, while the Promise is waiting
  writeln('called');
end.

Expected output:

calling
called
resolved

Manually created promise Version 2

Alternatively you can use the promise result type (here: string), by passing the TJSPromise to the exit() function:

Program MyModule;

uses JS, Web;

function ResolveAfter2Seconds: string; async;
// returns immediately with a Promise,
// which after 2 seconds gets resolved
var p: TJSPromise;
begin
  p:=TJSPromise.new(procedure(resolve, reject : TJSPromiseResolver)
    begin
    window.setTimeout(procedure
      begin
      resolve('resolved');
      end,
      2000); // wait 2 seconds
    end);
  exit(p); // the exit() function takes either a TJSPromise or a string
end;

procedure AsyncCall; async;
var s: string;
begin
  writeln('calling');
  s := await(resolveAfter2Seconds()); // no "string" needed
  // the await pauses this procedure returning to the caller
  // when the Promise from resolveAfter2Seconds gets resolved 
  // this procedure is continued
  writeln(s); // expected output: 'resolved'
end;

begin
  AsyncCall;
  // calling AsyncCall returns immediately, while the Promise is waiting
  writeln('called');
end.

Note: The Result variable is of type string. You cannot assign it a promise.

Example Multi await

Example demonstrating starting multiple async functions and waiting for them while they execute in parallel.

// Translated from https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Learn/JavaScript/Asynchronous/Async_await
program tryfetchmany;

{$mode objfpc}

uses
  browserconsole, JS, Web, SysUtils, Types;

function FetchBlob(url: string): TJSBlob; async;
var
  response: TJSResponse;
begin
  response := await(window.fetch(url));
  if not response.ok then
    raise Exception.create('HTTP error! status: '+str(response.status))
  else
    Result:=await(response.blob());
end;

function FetchText(url: string): string; async;
var
  response: TJSResponse;
begin
  response := await(window.fetch(url));
  if not response.ok then
    raise Exception.create('HTTP error! status: '+str(response.status))
  else
    Result:=await(response.text());
end;

procedure DisplayContent; async;
var
  coffee, tea, description: TJSPromise;
  objectURL1, objectURL2, descText: String;
  values: TJSValueDynArray;
  image1, image2: TJSHTMLImageElement;
  para: TJSHTMLElement;
begin
  try
    coffee := FetchBlob('test1.png');
    tea := FetchBlob('test1.png');
    description := FetchText('description.txt');

    values := await(TJSValueDynArray,TJSPromise.all([coffee, tea, description]));

    objectURL1 := TJSURL.createObjectURL(values[0]);
    objectURL2 := TJSURL.createObjectURL(values[1]);
    descText := string(values[2]);

    image1 := TJSHTMLImageElement(document.createElement('img'));
    image2 := TJSHTMLImageElement(document.createElement('img'));
    image1.src := objectURL1;
    image2.src := objectURL2;
    document.body.appendChild(image1);
    document.body.appendChild(image2);

    para := TJSHTMLElement(document.createElement('p'));
    para.textContent := descText;
    document.body.appendChild(para);

  except
    writeln(JSExceptValue);
  end;
end;

begin
  DisplayContent;
end.

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